A Dolls House Psychoanalytic Analysis

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A Dolls House Psychoanalytic Analysis

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A Doll's House by Henrik Ibsen - Themes

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France, Norway, the Netherlands and the United States show a broad range of openness toward nudity and sexuality as indicated by childhood experiences and sex education practices. The health textbooks in Finnish secondary schools emphasize the normalcy of non-sexual nudity in saunas and gyms as well as openness to the appropriate expression of developing sexuality. Everybody Gets Naked! As part of a science program on Norwegian public television NRK , a series on puberty intended for 8—year-olds includes explicit information and images of reproduction, anatomy, and the changes that are normal with the approach of puberty.

Rather than diagrams or photos, the videos were shot in a locker room with live nude people of all ages. The presenter, a physician, is relaxed about close examination and touching of relevant body parts, including genitals. While the videos note that the age of consent in Norway is 16, abstinence is not emphasized. In a subsequent series for teens and young adults, real people were recruited to have sex on TV as counterbalance to the unrealistic presentations in advertising and porn.

As of , 37 U. Studies show that early and complete sex education does not increase the likelihood of becoming sexually active, but leads to better health outcomes overall. Young children often play outdoors or in public wading pools nude. In a survey of predominantly white middle-class college students in the United States, only 9. Many were accidental walking in on someone and were more likely to be remembered as negative by women. Only 4. A majority of both women A report issued by the CDC comparing the sexual health of teens in France, Germany, the Netherlands and the United States concluded that if the US implemented comprehensive sex education similar to the three European countries there would be a significant reduction in teen pregnancies, abortions and the rate of sexually transmitted diseases, and save hundreds of millions of dollars.

In , Gordon and Schroeder contended that "there is nothing inherently wrong with bathing with children or otherwise appearing naked in front of them", noting that doing so may provide an opportunity for parents to provide important information. They noted that by ages five to six, children begin to develop a sense of modesty, and recommended to parents who desire to be sensitive to their children's wishes that they respect a child's modesty from that age onwards. In a article for the New York Times "Home" section, Julie Scelfo interviewed parents regarding the nudity of small children at home in situations which might include visitors outside the immediate household. The situations ranged from a three-year-old being naked at a large gathering to the use of a backyard swim pool becoming an issue when the children of disapproving neighbors participated.

While the consensus was to allow kids to be kids up to the age of five, there was acknowledgment of the possible discomfort of adults who consider such behavior to be inappropriate. While opponents of child nudity referred to the danger of pedophilia, proponents viewed innocent nudity as beneficial compared to the sexualization of children in toddler beauty pageants with makeup and "sexy" outfits. In Russia, a survey on proper dress for girls found acceptance of nudity for preschool age children at the beach, but nowhere else. However, girls being bare-chested was acceptable by some up to puberty.

Recreational swim in the Greenbrier River , West Virginia Bathing in the center of East Berlin , East Germany A nude family at Lake Senftenberg in East Germany s. Worldwide, laws regarding clothing specify what parts of the body must be covered, prohibiting complete nudity in public except for those jurisdictions that allow nude recreation. Specific laws may either require or prohibit religious attire veiling for women.

In a survey using data from to , there were 11 majority Muslim countries where women must cover their entire bodies in public, which may include the face. There were 39 countries, mostly in Europe, that had some prohibition of religious attire, in particular face coverings in certain situations, such as government buildings. Within Russia, laws may either require or prohibit veiling depending upon location. The brief, sudden exposure of parts of the body normally hidden from public view has a long tradition, taking several forms.

In the United Kingdom, nudity may not be used to "harass, alarm or distress" according to the Public Order Act of Most naturists comply with the law by being nude only where others cannot see them. His claim was ultimately rejected. In the United States, public nudity is a matter of local laws with the exception of First Amendment protection of free expression, which is generally recognized with regard to performances in an artistic context.

However, in Barnes v. Glen Theatre, Inc. Since regulation of everyday public behavior is more often a matter of social convention than written law, some jurisdictions may have no specific law against nudity in public. This was the case in , when three young men who had been skinny-dipping outside Brattleboro, Vermont decided to go into town to see what would happen if they disrobed there. They were not arrested, and the following two summers saw a number of incidents of public nakedness until an ordinance banning nudity was passed. In the 21st century in the United States, the legal definition of "full nudity" is exposure of the genitals.

Where the law has been challenged by asserting that nudity by itself in not lewd or disorderly, laws have been amended to specify indecent exposure, usually of the genitals but not always of the breast. Public indecency is generally a misdemeanor , but may become a felony upon repeated offense or always if done in the presence of a minor. In the state of Oregon, public nudity is legal and protected as free speech as long as there is not an "intent to arouse". After incidents in July of ticketing women for sunbathing topless, the Minneapolis Parks board moved to change the regulation that prohibits the exposure of female breasts on park property, which is legal elsewhere in the city and the state of Minnesota. Some tickets were issued when sunbathers were spotted in isolated areas by drones with cameras.

In some situations, nudity is forced on a person. For example, imposed nudity full or partial can be part of a corporal punishment or as humiliation , especially when administered in public. For example, in , students at a girls' school in the north-east Indian state of Arunachal Pradesh were forced to undress as a form of punishment, police say. Although not as common as corporal punishment, it is not unusual for stripping to be used as a form of punishment in Indian schools. Nazis used forced nudity to attempt to humiliate inmates in concentration camps.

This practice was depicted in the film Schindler's List In , Abu Ghraib prison in Baghdad , Iraq gained international notoriety for accounts of torture and abuses by members of the United States Army Reserve during the post-invasion period. Photographic images were circulated that showed the posing of prisoners naked, sometimes bound, and being intimidated and otherwise humiliated, resulting in widespread condemnation of the abuse. A strip search is the removal of some or all of a person's clothing to ensure that they do not have weapons or contraband.

Such searches are generally done when an individual is imprisoned after an arrest, and is justified by the need to maintain order in the facility, not as punishment for a crime. Nudity is used to draw public attention to a cause, sometimes including the promotion of public nudity itself. Bathing for cleanliness and recreation is a human universal, and the communal use of bathing facilities has been maintained in many cultures from varying traditional sources. When there is complete nudity, the facilities are often segregated by sex, but not always.

The sauna is attended nude in its source country of Finland , where many families have one in their home, and is one of the defining characteristics of Finnish identity. For example, the Friedrichsbad in Baden-Baden has designated times when mixed nude bathing is permitted. The German sauna culture also became popular in neighbouring countries such as Switzerland , Belgium , the Netherlands and Luxembourg.

The sauna came to the United States in the 19th century when Finns settled in western territories, building family saunas on their farms. When public saunas were built in the 20th century, they might include separate steam rooms for men and women. In Korea , bathhouses are known as Jjimjilbang. Such facilities may include mixed-sex sauna areas where clothing is worn, but bathing areas are gender segregated; nudity is required in those areas. In addition to the health benefits, a woman wrote in Psychology Today suggesting the social benefits for women and girls having real life experience of seeing the variety of real female bodies—even more naked than at a beach—as a counterbalance to the unrealistic nudity seen in popular media.

In Russia , public banyas are clothing-optional and are usually gender-segregated. Historically, certain facilities associated with activities that require partial or complete nakedness, such as bathing or changing clothes, have limited access to certain members of the public. These normal activities are guided by generally accepted norms, the first of which is that the facilities are most often segregated by gender; however, this may not be the case in all cultures.

Changing rooms may be provided in stores, workplaces, or sports facilities to allow people to change their clothing. Some changing rooms have individual cubicles or stalls affording varying degrees of privacy. Locker rooms and communal showers associated with sports generally lacked any individual space, thus providing minimal physical privacy. The men's locker room—which historically in Western cultures had been a setting for open male social nudity—is, in the 21st century United States, becoming a space of modesty and distancing between men. For much of the 20th century, the norm in locker rooms had been for men to undress completely without embarrassment. That norm has changed; in the 21st century, men typically wear towels or other garments in the locker room most of the time and avoid any interaction with others while naked.

This shift is the result of changes in social norms regarding masculinity and how maleness is publicly expressed; also, open male nudity has become associated with homosexuality. By the s, communal showers in American schools had become "uncomfortable", not only because students were accustomed to more privacy at home, but because young people became more self-conscious based upon the comparison to mass media images of perfect bodies.

The change also addresses issues of transgender usage and family use when one parent accompanies children of differing gender. Other studies indicate that not showering, while often related to being naked with peers, is also related to lower intensity of physical activity and involvement in sports. This shift in attitudes has come to societies historically open to nudity. In Denmark, secondary school students are now avoiding showering after gym classes. In interviews, students cited the lack of privacy, fears of being judged by idealized standards, and the possibility of being photographed while naked.

Attitudes toward public nudity vary depending on culture, time, location, and context. There are particular contexts in which nudity is tolerated, accepted, or even encouraged in public spaces. In Europe, such contexts include nude beaches , within some intentional communities such as naturist resorts or clubs and at special events. Such special events can be understood by expanding the historical concept of Carnival , where otherwise transgressive behaviors are allowed on particular occasions, to include other mass nudity public events.

Germany is known for being tolerant of public nudity in many situations. In the United States in , the city council of San Francisco , California, banned public nudity in the inner-city area. This move was met by harsh resistance because the city was known for its liberal culture and had previously tolerated public nudity. Naturism or nudism is a subculture advocating and defending private and public nudity as part of a simple, natural lifestyle. Naturists reject contemporary standards of modesty that discourage personal, family and social nudity. They instead seek to create a social environment where individuals feel comfortable being in the company of nude people and being seen nude, either by other naturists or by the general public.

The social sciences, until the middle of the 20th century, often studied public nakedness, including naturism, in the context of deviance or criminality. A nude beach, sometimes called a clothing-optional or free beach, is a beach where users are at liberty to be nude. Such beaches are usually on public lands. Nude beaches may be official legally sanctioned , unofficial tolerated by residents and law enforcement , or illegal but so isolated as to escape enforcement. In a picture-making civilization, pictorial conventions continually reaffirm what is natural in human appearance, which is part of socialization.

In Western societies, the contexts for depictions of nudity include information , art and pornography. Any ambiguous image not easily fitting into one of these categories may be misinterpreted, leading to disputes. The nude human figure has been one of the subjects of art from its Paleolithic beginnings, and a major preoccupation of Western art since the ancient Greeks. In The Nude: a Study in Ideal Form , Lord Kenneth Clark states that to be naked is to be deprived of clothes, and implies embarrassment and shame, while a nude, as a work of art, has no such connotations. Distinct from the nude artworks created, sessions where artists work from live models are a social situation where nudity has a long tradition. The role of the model both as part of visual art education and in the creation of finished works has evolved since antiquity in Western societies and worldwide wherever western cultural practices in the visual arts have been adopted.

At modern universities, art schools, and community groups " art model " is a job, one requirement of which is to pose "undraped" and motionless for minutes, hours with breaks or resuming the same pose for days as the artwork requires. Photography of groups of nude people in public places has been done around the world with or without official cooperation. The gathering itself is proposed as performance art, while the resulting images become statements based upon the identities of the people posing and the location selected: urban, scenic landscapes, or sites of historical significance.

The photographers including Spencer Tunick [] [] [] and Henning von Berg state a variety of artistic, cultural, and political reasons for their work, while those being photographed may be professional models or unpaid volunteers attracted to the project for personal reasons. Limits on the depiction of nudity are based upon the legal definitions of indecency and obscenity. In , the Supreme Court in Miller v. California established the three-tiered Miller test to determine what was obscene and thus not protected versus what was merely erotic and thus protected by the First Amendment. Depictions of child nudity or of children with nude adults appear in works of art in various cultures and historical periods.

These attitudes have changed over time and have become increasingly frowned upon, [] especially in the case of photography. During the years when film was developed by commercial photo labs, snapshots taken by parents of their nude infant or toddler children were reported to the police as possible child pornography. Live performances, such as dance, theater, performance art and body painting may include nudity either for realism or symbolic meaning. Dance , as a sequence of human movement, may be ceremonial , social or one of the performing arts. Partial or complete nudity is a feature of ceremonial dances in some tropical countries. However, some claim that modern practices may be used to promote "ethnic tourism" rather than to revive authentic traditions.

While premiering in Denmark without comment regarding the nudity, the work's performance in the United States in was limited to four evening performances at the Metropolitan Opera House in New York City. Models posing on stage nude was a feature of tableaux vivants at London's Windmill Theatre and New York's Ziegfeld Follies in the early 20th century. By nudity was freely employed by playwrights, directors and producers not only on subjects of sexuality but regarding social injustice and war. A well-known performance that included nudity was the Broadway musical Hair in Dionysus in 69 , a modern version of The Bacchae , included a chorus of nude and partially nude actors who staged a birth ritual and interacted with the audience. Public performances that have the intent of arousing the erotic interest of an audience have an indeterminate history, generally associated with prostitution.

The striptease did not end with performers entirely nude until the twentieth century, but has since evolved into the live sex show. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Naked. State of wearing no clothing. Several terms redirect here. For other uses, see Nude disambiguation , Naked disambiguation and Birthday suit disambiguation. For the preference for nudity in non-sexualized social settings, see Naturism. Main article: Human evolution. Main article: History of clothing and textiles. See also: Body modification.

Main article: History of nudity. See also: Clothing in ancient Greece. See also: Biblical clothing. See also: Historical race concepts. Early 20th century photography of Indigenous peoples of Africa and Oceania. Four Masai tribesmen, c. Three Igbo women in the early 20th century. See also: Breastfeeding and mental health. Main article: Nudity and sexuality. See also: Sexual attraction and Physical attractiveness. See also: Naturism in Germany and Naturism in France. See also: Nudity in religion and Ritual purification. See also: Child sexuality and Puberty. Cultural differences in childhood nudity. Fountain in Israel between and Main articles: Indecent exposure and Clothing laws by country. See also: Pantsing. Main article: Strip search. Main article: Nudity and protest.

See also: Sauna and Bathing. The examples and perspective in this section may not represent a worldwide view of the subject. You may improve this section , discuss the issue on the talk page , or create a new section, as appropriate. March Learn how and when to remove this template message. Further information: Changing room and Communal shower. See also: Nude recreation and Issues in social nudity. Main article: Naturism. Main article: Nude beach. See also: Nude swimming. Further information: List of places where social nudity is practised.

Main article: Depictions of nudity. See also: Nudity in film and Nudity in American television. Main article: Nude art. See also: Erotic art and Pornography. Human sexuality portal Nudity portal. It is noteworthy that today there is usually no separate bathing times for men and women. Nakedness of men and women in the sauna has been accepted for a long time and that has created a positive overall social climate.

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Dreaming about a wild, or feral, cat may mean that a neighbor could be dangerous to you or that this is something that you fear. A cat who bites you in your dream might mean the loss of something important to you. Dream images can be simple, or they can be complex. When you're interpreting what the cat in your dream might mean, allow yourself to be open to a wide range of possible interpretations. Don't worry about seeing a black cat in your dreams.

Despite the black cat being a common symbol of bad luck, seeing a black cat in your dreams doesn't have any particular bad luck attached. More important to the interpretation of your dream are the way you feel about the cat, how you treat it, and how it treats you. In the past, any cat appearing in a dream was generally considered to be bad luck. This has changed, however, as cultures became more comfortable with mystical topics.

Cats often represent sexuality and women. When a woman dreams about a cat, she may be dreaming about her own sexual power. A man dreaming about a cat may be symbolizing sexual fulfillment, or his own intuitive nature. Remember that you're the best expert on your dream. If the cat in your dreams carries a meaning for you, it doesn't matter what any dream dictionary says.

As you can see, dream dictionaries carry a wide range of possible interpretation. As you become more skilled at remembering your dreams, and thinking deeply about each element within the dream, you will learn to interpret what your dreams mean for you. Notice if you see a pattern in your dreams. Do certain elements recur on a regular basis? Do you notice that you often dream about a certain cat, or different cats? Your observations on your dreams should include who, what, when, where and why.

Always ask yourself: how did I feel about this? Part 2. Write down your dreams. Most dream experts recommend to keep a dream journal. A dream journal is a notebook kept beside your bed with a pen or pencil nearby. As soon as you wake up, immediately reach for pen and paper to write down everything you remember about your most recent dream. Try to write down any dream you have, no matter how difficult it may be to remember clearly. Include as many details as you can, no matter how strange or random. List colors, location, characters, sounds, emotions and objects. Each element has a possible meaning. Don't worry about grammar or spelling. No one else is likely to read this - it's just for you.

If using an app on your phone or tablet is easier for you, consider keeping your dream journal here. The main thing is to have it very close to your bed, so that it's there as you wake up. Note your feelings about each dream. The feelings that you experience in your dreams are not symbolic, but real feelings. Most people suppress negative emotions during the day, but these emotions will appear in dreams.

Learn to notice your feelings about every element within your dream in order to better interpret its meaning. The most common emotions found in dreams are fear and anxiety, followed by anger and sadness. Learn to recognize recurring images in your dreams. Over time you may start to notice similar themes and patterns emerging from otherwise dissimilar dreams. For example, if you keep finding yourself dreaming about stressful situations, even though the elements might be very different, it's important to look at the ways this stressful situation might be manifesting itself in your life.

These apps focus on the pattern of images and words in a dream, rather than trying to read the plot or recognize individual symbols. Think about all elements of your dream. When you've written down your dream, go back to sleep. Later, when you're fully awake, revisit your dream journal and read through your notes for meaning. Each dream is a mine of metaphorical meaning that you can interpret in multiple ways. For example, a dream about skydiving doesn't usually mean that the person is likely to jump out of a plane. Sometimes an element of a dream is not a metaphor, but simply a way that the person processes information.

For example, people who spent most of their lives before color television also dream in black and white. Learn more about dream interpretation. Some analytical therapists incorporate dream analysis into their therapy practice. If this appeals to you, consider learning more about dream interpretation, or finding a therapist who uses this approach. These are interesting and entertaining, but genuine dream analysis is more subtle and complex than these books may suggest.

Dream interpretation was a standard part of psychoanalytic models of both Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung. Jung's understanding of archetypes found in dreams shaped generations of scholars and psychologists. Include your email address to get a message when this question is answered. Related wikiHows How to. How to. Co-authors: Updated: October 22, Categories: Dream Interpretation. Article Summary X Cats can represent a wide range of things in your dream. In other languages Italiano: Interpretare un Sogno sui Gatti. Deutsch: Einen Traum mit Katzen deuten. Bahasa Indonesia: Menafsirkan Mimpi tentang Kucing.

Nederlands: Een droom met katten interpreteren. Thanks to all authors for creating a page that has been read , times. Did this article help you? Cookies make wikiHow better. By continuing to use our site, you agree to our cookie policy. About This Article. By signing up you are agreeing to receive emails according to our privacy policy. Follow Us.

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