Argyle Communication Cycle Strengths And Weaknesses

Friday, January 7, 2022 9:18:37 PM

Argyle Communication Cycle Strengths And Weaknesses



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COMMUNICATION CYCLE EXPLAINED WITH EXAMPLES: PART 1

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We offer free revision until our client is satisfied with the work delivered. You are guaranteed of confidentiality and authenticity By using our website, you can be sure to have your personal information secured. Our sample essays Expository Essay. Paper title: Online Education. Academic level: College. Discipline: English Paper Format: MLA format. Sources: 2. Early intervention remains a vital component of any holistic approach to preventing social ills or promoting social competence Emens et al. Child maltreatment is associated with the occurrence of other individual, family and societal problems poverty, mental illness, substance abuse, domestic violence, unemployment, lack of social support Mulroy A holistic approach must therefore be adopted to address what are often multi-problem, disadvantaged, dysfunctional families Tomison a.

An integral component of such a strategy is the development of partnerships between the various professions and agencies involved in child protection, child welfare, family support, education and community health Powell ; Tomison b. In the past decade there have been a number of links made between agencies or sectors working with families. For example, the New South Wales Department of Community Services,which has the statutory responsibility for child protection, is required to consult at the highest levels with the Police Service, Education and Health departments and peak family support and child welfare bodies when developing policies, contemplating changes to service delivery, and in order to develop effective, coordinated cross-sectoral case practice.

There has also been some recognition of the need to incorporate cross-sectoral issues in both treatment and prevention programs. In addition, the Victorian Government has recently commenced a reform of primary health and community support services, which are usually delivered in community-based or non-institutional settings. One of the key objectives of the reform is that service providers establish strong partnerships with clients, a high degree of collaboration with other local service providers, and greater integration of services at the local community level Department of Human Services There has been a concomitant reform of direct service provision. A similar trend is evident when considering the relationship between child maltreatment and domestic violence.

However this appears to be changing. In Tomison's b audit report of New South Wales child abuse prevention programs it was apparent that a large number of programs submitted for audit had taken an holistic approach to family violence, in particular, linking domestic violence and child maltreatment. Approximately 43 per cent of family support programs incorporated prevention strategies targeting both domestic violence and child maltreatment. These programs were being run by domestic violence groups and sexual assault services, as well as by generalist family support services and child-focused agencies where child maltreatment was the predominant concern.

In , Rayner undertook an assessment of the Commonwealth Government's role in the prevention of child maltreatment. A major finding from Rayner's assessment of the Commonwealth Government's role in the prevention of child abuse was the frequent failure in communication, coordination and cooperation within and between levels of government and between government departments, between the government and non government sectors, and within the multitude of non-government agencies that have adopted a prevention role. Overall, the prevention of child maltreatment appeared to be a very fragmented exercise, with many institutional structures not geared towards perceiving or identifying aspects of their work which had a preventative role.

Rayner recommended that the Commonwealth take a lead in the development of a cross-sectoral partnerships. Signalling Commonwealth, State and Territory government acknowledgment of the need for a national, coordinated approach to prevention, in the Commonwealth Government developed the first National Child Protection Council. The Council has subsequently been re-organised and re-constituted a number times. The current National Council for the Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect was announced in to provide community perspectives, advice and recommendations on the prevention of child maltreatment.

Comprised of representatives from various non-government health and welfare agencies, the Commonwealth government, and the State Governments of New South Wales, Victoria and Western Australia, it is particularly concerned with the development of primary and secondary child abuse prevention strategies. The recent creation of a Commonwealth Family and Community services portfolio also presents an opportunity to enable a 'whole of government' approach to the prevention of child maltreatment and other social ills.

Rayner also proposed a number of strategies as the possible means of improving the level of coordination and communication between agencies and departments with a role in preventing child maltreatment. Following the recommendations laid down in the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, a number of reports in the last few years have advocated for the development ofOffices for the Children and Children's Commissioners at the State and Commonwealth levels Rayner , some of the more recent being the Australian Law Reform Commission report, A Matter of Priority: Children and the Legal Process, and the recommendations arising from the National Children's Summit, convened by the Coalition for Australia's Children. The Offices for Children are proposed to provide the coordination of all child related policies and programs at the State or Federal levels.

Often such Offices are given a role in the promotion of child rights and thus the empowerment of children in society. Queensland did subsequently appoint a Commissioner for Children, albeit with a role focused predominantly on the investigation of complaints against statutory child protection services. Another commonly mooted option to enhance government response to the prevention of maltreatment relates to the development of mandatory Action Plans across all levels of government. Such Plans are designed to ensure that governments develop and implement cohesive strategies to address the needs of children and families, with particular reference to child abuse prevention. As part of ongoing policy development, the then Commonwealth Department of Health and Family Services now Family and Community Services developed Action Plans for specific 'at risk' populations, such as the Action Plan for Children with Disabilities The Wallis Group , based around a comprehensive, collaborative framework for action.

This Plan noted the need for the development of policies and protocols for the investigation and reporting of suspected maltreatment of children with disabilities; the importance of regular cross-program policy development and coordination between protective services and disability services; and the need to ensure effective interagency cooperation Authier ; The Wallis Group Rayner also proposed the implementation of mandatory Child Impact Statements Rayner At present, government departments are required to produce environmental impact statements which outline the effects of particular actions on the environment.

It is argued that Child Impact Statements would fulfil a similar function, forcing government departments or non-government agencies to consider the effect of particular actions on children, thus keeping child rights and role of the child in society at the forefront of debate around social issues. Taking the needs of children into account as part of the development of all policies may actually reduce the need for specific child-focused programs over time as many childhood needs will subsequently be met under more general program policies.

Finally, there is presently a general acceptance among stakeholders involved in the prevention of a variety of social ills such as child maltreatment, violence prevention in general, crime prevention, mental illness prevention or mental health promotion , of the need to adopt an ecological approach, to incorporate a holistic response that takes account the effects of the wider social environment, to both prevent social ills and perhaps more importantly, to promote general resiliency and the development of healthy communities. Consideration should therefore be given to developing cross-sectoral health promotion collaborations. The role of schools in the prevention of social ills and general health promotion provides a possible model of such a collaboration.

There is currently a general reliance on the school system to provide the prime access for health promotion and the prevention of child maltreatment and other social ills. As a result, many schools currently teach courses on a number of social problems, but there is only a limited level of support available to resource such programs. Conte and Fogarty perceived some benefit in developing a general prevention curriculum, primarily promoting mental health and empowering individuals, but with a secondary focus on applying the generic skills to specific problems and situations.

In theory, the adoption of such an holistic approach to prevention would encourage cooperative ventures between a number of professional fields, such as drug and alcohol services and child protection services. Such an approach appears to lend itself to the development of overarching, cross-sectoral health promotion strategies. Extending Conte and Fogarty's model at the global level would lead to the development of generalist community education programs, universal services and other vehicles for health promotion that could be implemented in schools, the workplace and local neighbourhoods. The aim would be to develop or enhance some of the key protective factors that underlie resiliency. It would require extensive cross-sectoral collaboration and pooled resources, but has the potential to produce a cost-effective means of developing healthy communities via the reduced duplication of effort.

The pooled funds and expertise resulting from a cross-sectoral promotion strategy would ensure that there was a greater ability to develop extensive programs that could achieve greater positive social impact over longer periods of time. However, it should be noted that there would a still be a need for truly preventative initiatives targeting specific social problems, like child maltreatment. Cost-effective cross-sectoral health promotion may, in the longer term, also result in a freeing up of resources within each sector that could be employed in targeted prevention initiatives. Such an approach is founded upon theformation and strengthening of partnerships between families, governments, child welfare, family support, health and education agencies, business, unions, religious organisations, as a means of integrating private and social responsibilities for families Cass Although these initiatives may take a variety of structures and forms, they are all based around the adoption of a comprehensive approach with the aim of empowering community members to participate in a partnership with government and the professional sector as a means of promoting the development of healthier communities.

That is, promoting positive change in disadvantaged neighbourhoods for individuals, families and the community as a whole, by improving physical, social and economic conditions Kubisch et al. In the s the approach became advocated widely in the United States. For example, in the US Advisory Board on Child Abuse and Neglect recommended that: 'We must strengthen our neighbourhoods, both physically and socially, so that people care about, watch, and support each other's families. Child protection must become a part of everyday life, a function of all sectors of the community.

The Board also advocated for the development of prevention zones , model neighbourhoods in which intensive efforts were made to facilitate 'neighbors helping neighbors' and to promote social and economic development as a means of preventing child maltreatment at the structural level. It currently has 30 members, including foundation members, program directors, experts in the field and public servants engaged in 'cross system, geographically targeted initiatives' Kubisch et al.

These forums provide a venue to share the lessons that have been learned, to receive updates on innovations and to work on common problems facing program providers and evaluators. This program has been implemented widely across the United States, and more recently, has received significant attention in Australia, and the United Kingdom Farrington The project provides a good example of the various phases of CCIs. The initial phase revolves around community mobilisation and the identification of key leaders of each community for example, local government representatives, and professionals from the health, welfare, police and business sectors.

These people are brought together to agree the goals of a prevention program, and to pledge their involvement in implementing it. A Community Board is then set up by the leaders with representation from a variety of professional agencies, community groups and the media. The Board has the responsibility for overseeing a detailed community assessment designed to identify key risk and protective factors in the local community, and for the development of a prevention plan specifically tailored to enhance the protective factors and to reduce the risks evident in the local community.

The Board is also expected to identify sources of funding and support or opportunities to redirect funds in order to enable a plan of action to be implemented. Technical assistance is usually provided to the various Community Boards throughout this process by the United States Government, and typically involves the training of frontline professionals and community members to implement the proposed plan.

In Australia, recognition of the benefits of adopting a 'whole of community' approach has been a much slower process. In the past few years however, Australia has begun to incorporate 'whole of community' approaches into frameworks designed to prevent child maltreatment NSW Child Protection Council and a number of other social ills, such as crime National Crime Prevention and youth homelessness Prime Ministerial Youth Homeless Taskforce For example, a key recommendation of the Prime Ministerial Youth Homeless Taskforce report 'Putting Families in the Picture' was that as part of the development of early intervention responses to youth homelessness, an aim should be 'to re-engage young homeless people or those at risk of homelessness in family, work, education, training and community' The results of pilot projects have indicated that half of the young people in the programs reported that their level of engagement with the community had improved, particularly in terms of access to accommodation, income and relationships with significant adults.

The National Crime Prevention report, Pathways to Prevention , written by a consortium convened by Professor Ross Homel, identified the need for a local, community-based approach to crime prevention. The Report recommendations exemplify the current convergence in thinking in the prevention of social ills, with much of the report advocating early intervention and 'whole of community' approaches. For example, the consortium concluded that future prevention initiatives should include: 'a neighbourhood or small area intervention targeting multiple risk and protective factors at multiple life phases and transition points. The focus should not only be on individual children and families, but, more generally, on the functioning of both local and non-local institutions, policies and aspects of social organisations that affect the quality of the local environment for children.

The overall aim should be to create a more supportive, friendly and inclusive environment for children, young people and families that better promotes healthy, pro-social development' National Crime Prevention The core component of such a demonstration project, or prevention zone , was perceived to be a process of community building that promoted the creation of an inclusive 'child friendly' or 'family supportive' environment, and that promoted the normal, pro-social development of children' National Crime Prevention However, the consortium also noted that mounting a large scale community-based program in Australia would not be quickly achieved because of the current tendency of 'funding agencies and the political system [to be] mostly oriented to short term "quick fix" initiatives that fit within the three year election cycle' As mentioned above, Victoria has recently begun an Australian adaptation of the first stages of Hawkins and Catalano's Communities that Care program.

Until recently, there has been a general reliance on the school system to provide the prime access for child abuse prevention purposes to children, young people and their families. Clearly the time demands on the school curriculum are increasing. In addition, there is a growing recognition that child abuse and child abuse prevention are too complex for schools, or any one sector, to manage alone Tomison b. This has eventuated as a function of the opportunity schools provide to access children and families, and the 'seemingly intractable problems with the current US network of social services.

The Inter-agency School Community Centres Pilot Project has used schools as venues to access children and families in an effort to involve the wider community in the development of healthy families and communities and the prevention of child maltreatment and other social ills. In a cross-sectoral collaboration, the NSW Departments of School Education and Community Services and Health have worked together to fund a two-year pilot program to establish four interagency school community centres.

Administered by the NSW Department of School Education and located at public schools, the aim of the program is to develop and trial models of interagency coordination, and to support families with children of five years and under with a view to preventing disadvantage at school entry. The project objectives are to: encourage and support families in their parenting role; to identify needs, knowledge gaps and issues in the local community; to promote community involvement in the provision and coordination of services for children and families; and to promote the school as a community centre. Managed by an interagency management committee, a full-time facilitator appointed to each site works closely with a community advisory group to identify needs and issues for families.

The types of local initiatives developed under the project include: play groups; parenting groups; before school screening; literacy programs; transition to school programs; home visiting; and nutrition programs. An interim evaluation report based on interviews with parents, community members, organisations involved in the local projects, school personnel and various management staff concluded that each of the four pilot centres had met its objectives Social Systems and Evaluation In particular, parents whose children attended transition or preschool programs identified benefits to their children in terms of readiness for school and general socialisation; such benefits were also noted by principals and preschool staff.

Parents reported that the project had lessened their own social isolation and provided them with opportunities for self-development. Health professionals perceived the projects as contributing to the health and wellbeing of children, particularly at two centres which introduced Before School Screening Programs; and there was enhanced interagency cooperation between government departments and with local community agencies.

Finally, the report indicated a high level of community support for the continuation of the project, and a strong level of community involvement. An underlying aim of the approach may be the development of a level of self-sufficiency and independent action such that the local community eventually take a greater role in the development of activities and ventures aimed at improving the health and wellbeing of community members, with less involvement by the government or the professional sector. The 'promotion of voluntary involvement in community-based initiatives can be an effective additional means of helping people on low incomes to find new ways of improving their personal and family living standards.

In most neighbourhoods, people reap the benefits of some form of 'neighbourhood-based natural helping network' - that is, they have a range of local professional and non-professional supports friends, family, neighbours they can turn to. They may help friends, family, neighbours in ongoing relationships; but more importantly, many natural helpers provide assistance across the community, to people with whom they have no prior link. These people may have a special concern or cause; an altruistic desire to help or support others; some special skills or expertise they wish to use to help others; they may be very resourceful or merely have a strong conviction regarding people's obligations and responsibilities as part of a community Fantuzzo et al.

Clearly, there is a need to encourage people in the local community to become 'natural helpers', to provide them with development and training , and maybe, as a means of indicating the value of such work to society, by paying them for their time. Fantuzzo et al. The name of the project reflects a desire to return to a time when people spent time sitting on their front porches, interacting with neighbours and contributing to the wellbeing of the local community. The project is designed to facilitate a return to neighbourhood problem solving and productive caring, with an emphasis on identifying or preventing child maltreatment and offering assistance to parents in need of support.

Volunteers undertake community-based training that provides knowledge and skills about child maltreatment and its prevention. They are taught specific actions they may take when they witness child maltreatment in public, or have concerns for the safety of a child, including culturally appropriate materials that assist them to become confident about employing intervention strategies. Post-training evaluation revealed that training participants in Washington State, followed over sixty days using an evidence-based assessment process, reported increased actions and documented successful interventions with families in the community. The utilisation of natural helpers in 'whole of community' approaches has much promise. A particularly untapped resource of natural helpers who have a strong role to play in building connectedness are older people.

The population is ageing and people are living healthily for decades after their retirement from full-time employment. There needs to be recognition of not just what services are required to support these people, but what they can offer society, and especially the younger members of society. Promoting positive contacts across the generations - for example, older mentors for young people or older supports for young parents, adopt-a grandparent programs, agencies where skilled tradespeople pass on their craft to the young, youth as lay-visitors to the elderly - are valuable community services of benefit to all parties.

Such contact promotes intergenerational communication and learning, it may teach respect on both sides, it enhances the social linkages for both groups, and for the young, there is an opportunity to gain wisdom, and perhaps employment and life skills; all of these enhance community connectedness and social capital. An evaluation of home visitor programs Cox has provided some evidence that the use of paraprofessional home visitors is very successful when targeting the general population under a universal service model, provided they engage with families for more than six months.

The general population was defined as including those who were generally disadvantaged, but excludes groups identified as particularly high risk Cox For shorter durations however, paraprofessionals were only successful with families where there was no disadvantage. For example, the Resilient Peer Training Project RPT was a three-year project targeting maltreating families, that was designed to reduce parent and child social isolation and to promote pro-social interactions.

One finding was that parents were much more effective in attempts to engage with isolated parents and to successfully enrol them in Head Start than graduate psychology students. These findings would appear to indicate the value of using trained lay volunteers in 'whole of community' activities, but ensuring there are professional supports available for families requiring greater support to achieve healthy development. Child protection and child welfare practice has traditionally tended to focus interventions on the mother as assumed primary caregiver, and the children, with less effort spent in engaging other caregivers or close family members.

This has implications for effective protection and also the prevention of maltreatment. The failure to engage male caregivers in addressing or preventing child maltreatment or other family violence concerns may, in itself, constitute a form of systems abuse of both mother and child Tomison a. The Fitting Fathers into Families project Russell et al. The project involved a national survey of the diversity and level of involvement of men in parenting and included an assessment of what men saw as their current needs as parents; children's perceptions of their fathers; and the key elements of successful men's parenting programs.

Russell et al. With regard to the development of healthy communities, there is a need to identify, access and engage with young people as equal partners in collaborative ventures to build healthier communities and to prevent maltreatment Tomison a. The need for youth participation has already been recognised in the child welfare sector, with progress in giving a voice to children and the empowerment of young people arising predominantly from attempts to empower children and young people in the out-of-home care system O'Brien The issue of children and young people's role in child abuse prevention will be discussed in more detail in a future Issues Paper.

In the past, efforts to prevent child maltreatment have been hampered by a failure to address the structural social forces and community-level factors that impact on children, families and the propensity for maltreatment Tomison a. This paper has provided an extensive review of the theoretical constructs underpinnings recent efforts to prevent child maltreatment holistically, and has described three major strategies that are currently perceived as key components of any attempt to reduce maltreatment at the societal and community levels. It is apparent that in Australia, like other western countries, that there has been recognition of the need to develop efforts that enhance the protective factors and increase children, family and the community's resiliency to social ills and the benefits arising from the adoption of a health promotion approach.

It has been further suggested that health promotion approaches lend themselves particularly to cross-sectoral collaboration and the pooling of resources, given the apparent universality of protective factors and approaches that foster resiliency. However, as Zigler and Styfco's concluded, despite being able to make observable improvements, no program or activity has been entirely successful in enabling children and young people to develop optimally when their larger child rearing environment is not a conducive one, giving rise to a number of recommendations. Although this failure may be attributed to implementation and process issues, rather than flaws in the overall concept, in order to ensure the success of the current generation of 'whole of community' approaches, with their emphasis on the empowerment of the community to facilitate the creation of healthier communities, it is vital that research is undertaken to delineate the mechanisms of successful comprehensive initiatives.

Second, in spite of the likely positive effect of health promotion campaigns, there will still be a need for the continuation of primary, secondary and tertiary prevention activities for each specific social ill. Third, it is therefore important to ensure that a greater emphasis on health promotion and efforts to develop resiliency do not detrimentally affect prevention efforts. A focus on resiliency without a continued focus on reducing risk factors is, in effect, only a partial solution. Effective child abuse prevention requires a truly holistic approach where risk and resiliency continue to be acknowledged as inter-related and solutions are developed to address the former and to promote the latter. Adam M. Copyright information. Examines the relationship between children with disabilities and parents with disabilities, and the potential for child maltreatment.

The merits of using mass media to advocate for children's rights, and raise awareness of and prevent child abuse. Child Aware Approaches is a grassroots initiative to develop local approaches, actions and initiatives to keep children safe and well. CFCA offers a free research and information helpdesk for child, family and community welfare practitioners, service providers, researchers and policy makers through the CFCA News. The Australian Institute of Family Studies acknowledges the traditional country throughout Australia on which we gather, live, work and stand.

We acknowledge all traditional custodians, their Elders past, present and emerging and we pay our respects to their continuing connection to their culture, community, land, sea and rivers. Home » Publications » Community-based approaches in preventing child maltreatment. Implications for prevention As part of the adoption of approaches where the enhancement of protective factors or 'strengths' are valued as part of a policy of promoting healthy communities, there has been some government interest in further developing the concept of resilience and using it as the basis for Australian community level interventions. Developmental prevention In order to prevent child maltreatment more effectively, strategies are required that focus on both reducing risk factors and strengthening protective factors that foster resiliency.

Social capital The practice of economic rationalism, adopted by governments of different political orientations in the United States, United Kingdom and Australia, has dominated economic and social policy agendas in these countries for much of the last 15 years. Social isolation and social connectedness However, just as a strong, positive community may promote positive, healthy development, a lack of connectedness or supports may have very real effects on community members' quality of life and ability to cope. Sexual abuse However, the key community-level factors that are likely to be related to child maltreatment, such as poverty, neighbourhood, culture and parenting practices, apply more to physical abuse, emotional abuse and neglect than to the sexual abuse of children.

Early intervention programs Much of the current approach to child abuse prevention results from a re visitation and extension of the programs and tenets of generic early intervention programs that were first begun 30 years ago. Social competency In the United States in the s, the Civil Rights movement provided the impetus to develop new ways of thinking and to overhaul the existing social structure. Perry Preschool Project ThePerry Preschool Project was a small experimental program begun in the early s, designed to enable children to participate in an active approach to learning, facilitated by well-trained teachers.

Home visiting programs Home-visiting programs are an important facet of a cohesive child abuse prevention strategy, ideally offering a universal primary preventative service with the flexibility to cater for the needs of 'at risk' or maltreating families Vimpani et al. Universal services - the Scandinavian model In some countries of Western Europe, universal early intervention programs drive strategies to prevent social ills via the development of a series of universal public health services in combination with a capacity to intervene with individual cases of child maltreatment Clark Implications for prevention The evaluation of these and other early intervention projects has resulted in the development of some guiding principles for the development of effective programs.

Service provision There has been a concomitant reform of direct service provision. A role for governments In , Rayner undertook an assessment of the Commonwealth Government's role in the prevention of child maltreatment. Office for Children and Children's Commissioners Following the recommendations laid down in the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, a number of reports in the last few years have advocated for the development ofOffices for the Children and Children's Commissioners at the State and Commonwealth levels Rayner , some of the more recent being the Australian Law Reform Commission report, A Matter of Priority: Children and the Legal Process, and the recommendations arising from the National Children's Summit, convened by the Coalition for Australia's Children.

Action Plans Another commonly mooted option to enhance government response to the prevention of maltreatment relates to the development of mandatory Action Plans across all levels of government. Cross-sectoral promotion Finally, there is presently a general acceptance among stakeholders involved in the prevention of a variety of social ills such as child maltreatment, violence prevention in general, crime prevention, mental illness prevention or mental health promotion , of the need to adopt an ecological approach, to incorporate a holistic response that takes account the effects of the wider social environment, to both prevent social ills and perhaps more importantly, to promote general resiliency and the development of healthy communities.

Australian initiatives In Australia, recognition of the benefits of adopting a 'whole of community' approach has been a much slower process. Crime prevention The National Crime Prevention report, Pathways to Prevention , written by a consortium convened by Professor Ross Homel, identified the need for a local, community-based approach to crime prevention. Inter-agency School Community Centres Pilot Project Until recently, there has been a general reliance on the school system to provide the prime access for child abuse prevention purposes to children, young people and their families.

Natural helpers In most neighbourhoods, people reap the benefits of some form of 'neighbourhood-based natural helping network' - that is, they have a range of local professional and non-professional supports friends, family, neighbours they can turn to. Intergenerational helping A particularly untapped resource of natural helpers who have a strong role to play in building connectedness are older people. Role of paraprofessionals An evaluation of home visitor programs Cox has provided some evidence that the use of paraprofessional home visitors is very successful when targeting the general population under a universal service model, provided they engage with families for more than six months.

Role of fathers Child protection and child welfare practice has traditionally tended to focus interventions on the mother as assumed primary caregiver, and the children, with less effort spent in engaging other caregivers or close family members. Role of children and young people With regard to the development of healthy communities, there is a need to identify, access and engage with young people as equal partners in collaborative ventures to build healthier communities and to prevent maltreatment Tomison a. Notes The terms child abuse and neglect and child maltreatment are used interchangeably throughout this paper. Unless otherwise stated, the term child abuse prevention encompasses the prevention of all forms of child abuse and neglect. Although the term community and neighbourhood are often used interchangeably, in this paper the term community refers to a definable political jurisdiction for example, a township, metropolitan area, or local government area that includes a governing structure that controls the resources available for children, families and neighbourhoods.

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