Summary Of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.s Speech

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Summary Of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.s Speech

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Martin Luther King: I Have A Dream: Textual Analysis (Part 1)

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King opposed the Vietnam War because it took money and resources that could have been spent on social welfare at home. The United States Congress was spending more and more on the military and less and less on anti-poverty programs at the same time. He summed up this aspect by saying, "A nation that continues year after year to spend more money on military defense than on programs of social uplift is approaching spiritual death.

King's opposition cost him significant support among white allies, including President Johnson, Billy Graham, [] union leaders and powerful publishers. The "Beyond Vietnam" speech reflected King's evolving political advocacy in his later years, which paralleled the teachings of the progressive Highlander Research and Education Center , with which he was affiliated. In a letter to Coretta Scott, he said: "I imagine you already know that I am much more socialistic in my economic theory than capitalistic King stated in "Beyond Vietnam" that "true compassion is more than flinging a coin to a beggar King's stance on Vietnam encouraged Allard K.

Lowenstein , William Sloane Coffin and Norman Thomas , with the support of anti-war Democrats, to attempt to persuade King to run against President Johnson in the United States presidential election. King contemplated but ultimately decided against the proposal on the grounds that he felt uneasy with politics and considered himself better suited for his morally unambiguous role as an activist. At the U. King brought up issues of civil rights and the draft:. I have not urged a mechanical fusion of the civil rights and peace movements.

There are people who have come to see the moral imperative of equality, but who cannot yet see the moral imperative of world brotherhood. I would like to see the fervor of the civil-rights movement imbued into the peace movement to instill it with greater strength. And I believe everyone has a duty to be in both the civil-rights and peace movements. But for those who presently choose but one, I would hope they will finally come to see the moral roots common to both.

Seeing an opportunity to unite civil rights activists and anti-war activists, [] Bevel convinced King to become even more active in the anti-war effort. The importance of the hippies is not in their unconventional behavior, but in the fact that hundreds of thousands of young people, in turning to a flight from reality, are expressing a profoundly discrediting view on the society they emerge from.

On January 13, the day after President Johnson's State of the Union Address , King called for a large march on Washington against "one of history's most cruel and senseless wars. We need to make clear in this political year, to congressmen on both sides of the aisle and to the president of the United States, that we will no longer tolerate, we will no longer vote for men who continue to see the killings of Vietnamese and Americans as the best way of advancing the goals of freedom and self-determination in Southeast Asia.

He had written a letter to Martin Luther King Jr. In his nomination, King said, "I do not personally know of anyone more worthy of [this prize] than this gentle monk from Vietnam. His ideas for peace, if applied, would build a monument to ecumenism , to world brotherhood, to humanity". King traveled the country to assemble "a multiracial army of the poor" that would march on Washington to engage in nonviolent civil disobedience at the Capitol until Congress created an "economic bill of rights" for poor Americans.

King quoted from Henry George and George's book, Progress and Poverty , particularly in support of a guaranteed basic income. He felt that Congress had shown "hostility to the poor" by spending "military funds with alacrity and generosity. The Poor People's Campaign was controversial even within the civil rights movement. Rustin resigned from the march, stating that the goals of the campaign were too broad, that its demands were unrealizable, and that he thought that these campaigns would accelerate the backlash and repression on the poor and the black. The workers had been on strike since March 12 for higher wages and better treatment.

In one incident, black street repairmen received pay for two hours when they were sent home because of bad weather, but white employees were paid for the full day. King's flight to Memphis had been delayed by a bomb threat against his plane. And then I got to Memphis. And some began to say the threats, or talk about the threats that were out. What would happen to me from some of our sick white brothers? Well, I don't know what will happen now. We've got some difficult days ahead. But it doesn't matter with me now. Because I've been to the mountaintop. And I don't mind. Like anybody, I would like to live a long life.

Longevity has its place. But I'm not concerned about that now. I just want to do God's will. And He's allowed me to go up to the mountain. And I've looked over. And I've seen the promised land. I may not get there with you. But I want you to know tonight, that we, as a people, will get to the promised land. So I'm happy, tonight. I'm not worried about anything.

I'm not fearing any man. Mine eyes have seen the glory of the coming of the Lord. Ralph Abernathy , who was present at the assassination, testified to the United States House Select Committee on Assassinations that King and his entourage stayed at Room so often that it was known as the "King-Abernathy suite. Play it real pretty. King was fatally shot by James Earl Ray at p. The bullet entered through his right cheek, smashing his jaw, then traveled down his spinal cord before lodging in his shoulder. After emergency chest surgery, King died at St. Joseph's Hospital at p. National Historical Park. The assassination led to a nationwide wave of race riots in Washington, D.

Kennedy was on his way to Indianapolis for a campaign rally when he was informed of King's death. He gave a short, improvised speech to the gathering of supporters informing them of the tragedy and urging them to continue King's ideal of nonviolence. The plan to set up a shantytown in Washington, D. Criticism of King's plan was subdued in the wake of his death, and the SCLC received an unprecedented wave of donations for the purpose of carrying it out. The campaign officially began in Memphis, on May 2, at the hotel where King was murdered.

President Lyndon B. Johnson tried to quell the riots by making several telephone calls to civil rights leaders, mayors and governors across the United States and told politicians that they should warn the police against the unwarranted use of force. In that sermon, King made a request that at his funeral no mention of his awards and honors be made, but that it be said that he tried to "feed the hungry", "clothe the naked", "be right on the [Vietnam] war question", and "love and serve humanity.

Two months after King's death, James Earl Ray —who was on the loose from a previous prison escape—was captured at London Heathrow Airport while trying to leave England on a false Canadian passport. He was using the alias Ramon George Sneyd on his way to white-ruled Rhodesia. He confessed to the assassination on March 10, , though he recanted this confession three days later. He was sentenced to a year prison term.

Ray's lawyers maintained he was a scapegoat similar to the way that John F. Kennedy's assassin Lee Harvey Oswald is seen by conspiracy theorists. Jerry Ray said that he had assisted his brother on one such robbery. Those suspecting a conspiracy in the assassination point to the two successive ballistics tests which proved that a rifle similar to Ray's Remington Gamemaster had been the murder weapon. Those tests did not implicate Ray's specific rifle. They said that it came from behind thick shrubbery near the boarding house—which had been cut away in the days following the assassination—and not from the boarding house window. Two years later, King's widow Coretta Scott King and the couple's children won a wrongful death claim against Loyd Jowers and "other unknown co-conspirators.

The jury of six whites and six blacks found in favor of the King family, finding Jowers to be complicit in a conspiracy against King and that government agencies were party to the assassination. Pepper represented the King family in the trial. In , the U. Department of Justice completed the investigation into Jowers' claims but did not find evidence to support allegations about conspiracy. The investigation report recommended no further investigation unless some new reliable facts are presented.

He stated, "It wasn't a racist thing; he thought Martin Luther King was connected with communism, and he wanted to get him out of the way. Pepper's claims that the government killed King. The fact is there were saboteurs to disrupt the march. And within our own organization, we found a very key person who was on the government payroll. So infiltration within, saboteurs from without and the press attacks.

I will never believe that James Earl Ray had the motive, the money and the mobility to have done it himself. Our government was very involved in setting the stage for and I think the escape route for James Earl Ray. King's legacy includes influences on the Black Consciousness Movement and civil rights movement in South Africa. King influenced Irish politician and activist John Hume. Hume, the former leader of the Social Democratic and Labour Party , cited King's legacy as quintessential to the Northern Irish civil rights movement and the signing of the Good Friday Agreement , calling him "one of my great heroes of the century.

Inspired by King's vision, it undertakes a range of activities across the UK as it seeks to "build cultures of peace. In , Newcastle University unveiled a bronze statue of King to celebrate the 50th anniversary of his honorary doctorate ceremony. King has become a national icon in the history of American liberalism and American progressivism. This legislation was seen as a tribute to King's struggle in his final years to combat residential discrimination in the U. Her purpose was to help them understand King's death as it related to racism, something they little understood as they lived in a predominantly white community.

King's wife Coretta Scott King followed in her husband's footsteps and was active in matters of social justice and civil rights until her death in The same year that Martin Luther King was assassinated, she established the King Center in Atlanta, Georgia, dedicated to preserving his legacy and the work of championing nonviolent conflict resolution and tolerance worldwide. Even within the King family, members disagree about his religious and political views about gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender people. King's widow Coretta publicly said that she believed her husband would have supported gay rights. On February 4, , at the Ebenezer Baptist Church, in speaking about how he wished to be remembered after his death, King stated:.

I'd like somebody to mention that day that Martin Luther King Jr. I'd like for somebody to say that day that Martin Luther King Jr. I want you to say that day that I tried to be right on the war question. I want you to be able to say that day that I did try to feed the hungry. I want you to be able to say that day that I did try in my life to clothe those who were naked. I want you to say on that day that I did try in my life to visit those who were in prison. And I want you to say that I tried to love and serve humanity. Yes, if you want to say that I was a drum major. Say that I was a drum major for justice. Say that I was a drum major for peace. I was a drum major for righteousness. And all of the other shallow things will not matter. I won't have any money to leave behind.

I won't have the fine and luxurious things of life to leave behind. But I just want to leave a committed life behind. Beginning in , cities such as St. Louis, Missouri , and states established annual holidays to honor King. Following President George H. Bush 's proclamation, the holiday is observed on the third Monday of January each year, near the time of King's birthday. Day was officially observed in all fifty U. Utah previously celebrated the holiday at the same time but under the name Human Rights Day. As a Christian minister, King's main influence was Jesus Christ and the Christian gospels, which he would almost always quote in his religious meetings, speeches at church, and in public discourses.

King's faith was strongly based in Jesus' commandment of loving your neighbor as yourself , loving God above all, and loving your enemies, praying for them and blessing them. His nonviolent thought was also based in the injunction to turn the other cheek in the Sermon on the Mount , and Jesus' teaching of putting the sword back into its place Matthew In another sermon, he stated:. Before I was a civil rights leader, I was a preacher of the Gospel. This was my first calling and it still remains my greatest commitment.

You know, actually all that I do in civil rights I do because I consider it a part of my ministry. I have no other ambitions in life but to achieve excellence in the Christian ministry. I don't plan to run for any political office. I don't plan to do anything but remain a preacher. And what I'm doing in this struggle, along with many others, grows out of my feeling that the preacher must be concerned about the whole man.

King's private writings show that he rejected biblical literalism ; he described the Bible as "mythological," doubted that Jesus was born of a virgin and did not believe that the story of Jonah and the whale was true. The sermons argued for man's need for God's love and criticized the racial injustices of Western civilization. World peace through nonviolent means is neither absurd nor unattainable. All other methods have failed. Thus we must begin anew. Nonviolence is a good starting point. Those of us who believe in this method can be voices of reason, sanity, and understanding amid the voices of violence, hatred, and emotion.

We can very well set a mood of peace out of which a system of peace can be built. Veteran African-American civil rights activist Bayard Rustin was King's first regular advisor on nonviolence. Rustin had applied nonviolence with the Journey of Reconciliation campaign in the s, [] and Wofford had been promoting Gandhism to Southern blacks since the early s.

King had initially known little about Gandhi and rarely used the term "nonviolence" during his early years of activism in the early s. King initially believed in and practiced self-defense, even obtaining guns in his household as a means of defense against possible attackers. The pacifists guided King by showing him the alternative of nonviolent resistance , arguing that this would be a better means to accomplish his goals of civil rights than self-defense.

King then vowed to no longer personally use arms. In the aftermath of the boycott, King wrote Stride Toward Freedom , which included the chapter Pilgrimage to Nonviolence. King outlined his understanding of nonviolence, which seeks to win an opponent to friendship, rather than to humiliate or defeat him. The chapter draws from an address by Wofford, with Rustin and Stanley Levison also providing guidance and ghostwriting. King was inspired by Gandhi and his success with nonviolent activism, and as a theology student, King described Gandhi as being one of the "individuals who greatly reveal the working of the Spirit of God".

In a radio address made during his final evening in India, King reflected, "Since being in India, I am more convinced than ever before that the method of nonviolent resistance is the most potent weapon available to oppressed people in their struggle for justice and human dignity. King's admiration of Gandhi's nonviolence did not diminish in later years. He went so far as to hold up his example when receiving the Nobel Peace Prize in , hailing the "successful precedent" of using nonviolence "in a magnificent way by Mohandas K. Gandhi to challenge the might of the British Empire He struggled only with the weapons of truth, soul force, non-injury and courage. Another influence for King's nonviolent method was Henry David Thoreau 's essay On Civil Disobedience and its theme of refusing to cooperate with an evil system.

Even after renouncing his personal use of guns, King had a complex relationship with the phenomenon of self-defense in the movement. He publicly discouraged it as a widespread practice, but acknowledged that it was sometimes necessary. King was criticized by other black leaders during the course of his participation in the civil rights movement. This included opposition by more militant thinkers such as Nation of Islam member Malcolm X. King was an avid supporter of Native American rights. Native Americans were also active supporters of King's civil rights movement which included the active participation of Native Americans. Our nation was born in genocide when it embraced the doctrine that the original American, the Indian, was an inferior race.

Even before there were large numbers of Negroes on our shores, the scar of racial hatred had already disfigured colonial society. From the sixteenth century forward, blood flowed in battles over racial supremacy. We are perhaps the only nation which tried as a matter of national policy to wipe out its indigenous population. Moreover, we elevated that tragic experience into a noble crusade. Indeed, even today we have not permitted ourselves to reject or to feel remorse for this shameful episode. Our literature, our films, our drama, our folklore all exalt it.

King assisted Native American people in south Alabama in the late s. The South had many egregious racial problems: In this case, light-complexioned Native children were allowed to ride school buses to previously all white schools, while dark-skinned Native children from the same band were barred from riding the same buses. He promptly responded and through his intervention the problem was quickly resolved. He put into words his belief that one must not use force in this struggle "but match the violence of his opponents with his suffering. During the March on Washington there was a sizable Native American contingent, including many from South Dakota, and many from the Navajo nation. King was a major inspiration along with the civil rights movement which inspired the Native American rights movement of the s and many of its leaders.

Inspired by Dr. King, who was advancing the civil rights agenda of equality under the laws of this country, we thought that we could also use the laws to advance our Indianship, to live as tribes in our territories governed by our own laws under the principles of tribal sovereignty that had been with us ever since We believed that we could fight for a policy of self-determination that was consistent with U. They both have weaknesses And I'm not inextricably bound to either party.

Actually, the Negro has been betrayed by both the Republican and the Democratic party. The Democrats have betrayed him by capitulating to the whims and caprices of the Southern Dixiecrats. The Republicans have betrayed him by capitulating to the blatant hypocrisy of reactionary right-wing northern Republicans. And this coalition of southern Dixiecrats and right-wing reactionary northern Republicans defeats every bill and every move towards liberal legislation in the area of civil rights.

Although King never publicly supported a political party or candidate for president, in a letter to a civil rights supporter in October he said that he had not decided whether he would vote for Adlai Stevenson II or Dwight D. Eisenhower at the presidential election , but that "In the past, I always voted the Democratic ticket. Kennedy : "I felt that Kennedy would make the best president. I never came out with an endorsement. My father did, but I never made one. In , King urged his supporters "and all people of goodwill" to vote against Republican Senator Barry Goldwater for president, saying that his election "would be a tragedy, and certainly suicidal almost, for the nation and the world. King supported the ideals of social democracy and democratic socialism , although he was reluctant to speak directly of this support due to the anti-communist sentiment being projected throughout the United States at the time, and the association of socialism with communism.

King believed that capitalism could not adequately provide the necessities of many American people, particularly the African-American community. King stated that black Americans, as well as other disadvantaged Americans, should be compensated for historical wrongs. In an interview conducted for Playboy in , he said that granting black Americans only equality could not realistically close the economic gap between them and whites. He posited that "the money spent would be more than amply justified by the benefits that would accrue to the nation through a spectacular decline in school dropouts, family breakups, crime rates, illegitimacy, swollen relief rolls, rioting and other social evils.

He stated, "It should benefit the disadvantaged of all races. Actress Nichelle Nichols planned to leave the science-fiction television series Star Trek in after its first season , wanting to return to musical theater. King explained that her character signified a future of greater racial harmony and cooperation. Keep doing what you're doing, you are our inspiration. And I thanked him and I told him I was leaving the show. All the smile came off his face. And he said, 'Don't you understand for the first time we're seen as we should be seen.

You don't have a black role. You have an equal role. FBI director J. Edgar Hoover personally ordered surveillance of King, with the intent to undermine his power as a civil rights leader. Kennedy to proceed with wiretapping of King's phone lines, purportedly due to his association with Stanley Levison. The Bureau placed wiretaps on the home and office phone lines of both Levison and King, and bugged King's rooms in hotels as he traveled across the country. In a secret operation code-named " Minaret ", the National Security Agency monitored the communications of leading Americans, including King, who were critical of the U.

For years, Hoover had been suspicious of potential influence of communists in social movements such as labor unions and civil rights. Due to the relationship between King and Stanley Levison, the FBI feared Levison was working as an "agent of influence" over King, in spite of its own reports in that Levison had left the Party and was no longer associated in business dealings with them. Despite the extensive surveillance conducted, by the FBI had acknowledged that it had not obtained any evidence that King himself or the SCLC were actually involved with any communist organizations.

For his part, King adamantly denied having any connections to communism. In a Playboy interview, he stated that "there are as many Communists in this freedom movement as there are Eskimos in Florida. The attempts to prove that King was a communist was related to the feeling of many segregationists that blacks in the South were content with the status quo, but had been stirred up by "communists" and "outside agitators. King said that "the Negro revolution is a genuine revolution, born from the same womb that produces all massive social upheavals—the womb of intolerable conditions and unendurable situations. CIA files declassified in revealed that the agency was investigating possible links between King and Communism after a Washington Post article dated November 4, , claimed he was invited to the Soviet Union and that Ralph Abernathy, as spokesman for King, refused to comment on the source of the invitation.

The FBI having concluded that King was dangerous due to communist infiltration, attempts to discredit King began through revelations regarding his private life. FBI surveillance of King, some of it since made public, attempted to demonstrate that he also had numerous extramarital affairs. Johnson once said that King was a "hypocritical preacher". In his autobiography And the Walls Came Tumbling Down , Ralph Abernathy stated that King had a "weakness for women", although they "all understood and believed in the biblical prohibition against sex outside of marriage.

It was just that he had a particularly difficult time with that temptation. Abernathy criticized the media for sensationalizing the statements he wrote about King's affairs, [] such as the allegation that he admitted in his book that King had a sexual affair the night before he was assassinated. In his book Bearing the Cross , David Garrow wrote about a number of extramarital affairs, including one woman King saw almost daily. According to Garrow, "that relationship The FBI distributed reports regarding such affairs to the executive branch, friendly reporters, potential coalition partners and funding sources of the SCLC, and King's family. The American public, the church organizations that have been helping—Protestants, Catholics and Jews will know you for what you are—an evil beast.

So will others who have backed you. You are done. King, there is only one thing left for you to do. You know what it is. You have just 34 days in which to do this exact number has been selected for a specific reason, it has definite practical significant [ sic ]. There is but one way out for you. You better take it before your filthy fraudulent self is bared to the nation. The letter was accompanied by a tape recording—excerpted from FBI wiretaps—of several of King's extramarital liaisons. King to resign from the SCLC. In May , FBI files emerged alleging that King "looked on, laughed and offered advice" as one of his friends raped a woman.

His biographer, David Garrow , wrote that "the suggestion King records at Stanford University states that he came to the opposite conclusion of Garrow saying "None of this is new. Garrow is talking about a recently added summary of a transcript of a recording from the Willard Hotel that others, including Mrs. King, have said they did not hear Martin's voice on it. The added summary was four layers removed from the actual recording. This supposedly new information comes from an anonymous source in a single paragraph in an FBI report. You have to ask how could anyone conclude King looked at a rape from an audio recording in a room where he was not present. I have read scores of reports talking about the scurrilous activities of my husband but once again, there was nothing at all incriminating on the tape.

It was a social event with people laughing and telling dirty jokes. But I did not hear Martin's voice on it, and there was nothing about sex or anything else resembling the lies J. Edgar and the FBI were spreading. A fire station was located across from the Lorraine Motel, next to the boarding house in which James Earl Ray was staying. Police officers were stationed in the fire station to keep King under surveillance. Marrell McCollough, an undercover police officer, was the first person to administer first aid to King. King was awarded at least fifty honorary degrees from colleges and universities.

You have it all or you are not free. There are three urgent and indeed great problems that we face not only in the United States of America but all over the world today. That is the problem of racism, the problem of poverty and the problem of war. The citation read:. He gazed upon the great wall of segregation and saw that the power of love could bring it down. From the pain and exhaustion of his fight to fulfill the promises of our founding fathers for our humblest citizens, he wrung his eloquent statement of his dream for America. He made our nation stronger because he made it better. His dream sustains us yet.

King and his wife were also awarded the Congressional Gold Medal in Among the planned designs are images from King's "I Have a Dream" speech and the concert by opera singer Marian Anderson. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Martin Luther King. American civil rights activist and leader — Not to be confused with Martin Luther. The Reverend. Coretta Scott. Yolanda Martin Dexter Bernice. Martin Luther King Sr. Alberta Williams King. Baptist minister activist. This article is part of a series about. See also: Martin Luther King Jr. Main article: Albany Movement. Main article: Birmingham campaign. Play media. Main article: March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom. I Have a Dream. Main article: I Have a Dream.

Main article: St. Augustine movement. Main article: Selma to Montgomery marches. Main article: Chicago Freedom Movement. It reveals systemic rather than superficial flaws and suggests that radical reconstruction of society itself is the real issue to be faced —Martin Luther King Jr. Main article: Poor People's Campaign. I've Been to the Mountaintop. Further information: King assassination riots. Main article: Martin Luther King Jr.

See also: Black Consciousness Movement. See also: Northern Ireland civil rights movement. See also: Reparations for slavery debate in the United States. Biography portal Civil rights movement portal Georgia U. Oates and Schuman state that King passed the exam in the spring of before graduating from the eleventh grade and then being enrolled in Morehouse that fall. Manheimer states that King graduated from the eleventh grade, then applied and took the entrance exam before going to Connecticut, but did not find out he had passed until August when he was admitted. White states he took and passed the exam upon his return from Connecticut in Greenwood Publishing Group.

ISBN X. Board of Education. ISBN The King Center. The Martin Luther King, Jr. Center for Nonviolent Social Change. Archived from the original on January 22, Retrieved January 22, March 9, Retrieved September 2, Archived from the original on December 17, Retrieved June 24, January 15, The Washington Post. Retrieved January 20, The Atlanta Journal-Constitution. Retrieved February 3, Assassination of Martin Luther King Jr. Abdo Pub Co. Stanford University. June 12, Retrieved September 17, Research and Education Institute. Archived from the original on December 18, Retrieved November 15, December 9, Retrieved October 12, Gerald August 11, The New York Times.

Macon Telegraph. Connecticut Post. Retrieved October 18, NBC Connecticut. January 19, The Hartford Courant. Archived from the original on December 30, Retrieved October 19, The University of Chicago. Retrieved June 6, Encyclopedia of American Civil Liberties. Mercer University Press. Minneapolis: Fortress Publishing. Retrieved July 5, Atria Books. King: A Biography. University of Illinois Press. October 11, The Boston Globe. Oxford University Press. Harvard Gazette. Retrieved July 29, Greenwood Publishing. Retrieved July 6, Retrieved March 14, Panel Finds Plagiarism by Dr. Associated Press. Archived from the original on November 8, Retrieved November 13, Retrieved November 7, Ethnic and Racial Studies.

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This Man Saved Him". Archived from the original on May 14, September 19, July 6, The Rome Sentinel. May 4, October 25, Kennedy, Martin Luther King Jr. Atlanta Journal-Constitution. Atlanta Magazine. New Georgia Encyclopedia. Hatchette Digital. Retrieved January 4, Harper Collins. Civil Rights Movement Archive. Simon and Schuster. Wm B Eerdmans Publishing. Newsweek : May 13, Newsweek : 28, April 22, Retrieved August 22, April 14, SAGE Publications. Archived from the original on January 7, King began writing the letter on newspaper margins and continued on bits of paper brought by friends. Hoover Institution. Retrieved April 28, Basic Civitas Books. Freedom Riders: and the Struggle for Racial Justice. Leaders from the s: A biographical sourcebook of American activism.

African-Americans and the Quest for Civil Rights, — NYU Press. Robert Kennedy and His Times. Houghton Mifflin Books. Press of Mississippi. Living for Change: An Autobiography. U of Minnesota Press. Mysteries in History: From Prehistory to the Present. The Sixties in America. Salem Press. Syracuse University Press. Congressional Record. Library of Congress. Archived from the original on July 28, Retrieved July 11, The Guardian. Archived from the original on August 27, Retrieved January 9, Newmarket Press. Archived from the original on January 5, Retrieved August 27, CBS News. CBS Interactive Inc. Retrieved August 31, Robert B. Pineapple Press. Augustine, Florida". King Encyclopedia. July 7, Retrieved December 18, Bangor Daily News.

Retrieved April 17, King in Biddeford". The Backblog. Who Speaks for the Negro? Retrieved January 18, Archived from the original on May 5, Retrieved June 10, Archived from the original on December 25, ISSN Retrieved September 5, America Divided: The Civil War of the s. Oxford University Pressk. The Riotmakers. Oak Tree Books. National Public Radio. September 2, Archived from the original on June 27, Retrieved January 24, Retrieved May 5, Chicago History. Archived from the original on January 30, Harvard University Press.

Chicago: City Guide. Lonely Planet. Jesse Jackson. Holloway House Publishing. LSU Press. See also: Miller, Keith D. Meet Martin Luther King, Jr. Rosen Publishing Group. The Betrayal of the Urban Poor. Temple University Press. Retrieved February 13, January 21, Retrieved January 21, The Sixties Chronicle. Legacy Publishing. James L. Bevel dies at 72; civil rights activist and top lieutenant to King". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved September 15, The African American Voice in U. Fortress Press. You may have noticed his biography was on a communist website. The communist philosophy is all about the individual not being important. Everyone works together for the good of the state, or the factory as it is in this context.

However, his ideas were utilized in America and transformed how factories were run, cutting down costs while increasing production. What do you think of his ideas? What would you think if you were a factory owner? What would you think if you were a worker? Lesson 20 Look at this picture from a cotton mill. What, if any, labor restrictions do you think should have been put in place during this era? Stop after looking at the chart. Read Booker T. Who does Washington shift the burden to?

Take notes on the social, economic and political trends of the period. Lesson 23 Read The Immigration Question. What do the views expressed tell us about attitudes among Americans towards immigrants by the late nineteenth century? Start after the chart. Lesson 24 Read chapter 1 of Italian Women in Industry. This book gives firsthand accounts from the early s. Lesson 25 Read chapter 2 of Italian Women in Industry. Lesson 26 Read chapter 3 of Italian Women in Industry. How would you describe the nature of the work for Italian immigrant workers? Were these women victimized and exploited, or were they determined women who took advantage of any opportunity to improve their lives?

Do their stories put immigration in this era in a positive or negative light? What new things contributed to the new New York? What were his thoughts on immigrants? Lesson 29 Answer the first question. You will score this on Lesson 30 for thoroughness and accuracy and following directions. Lesson 30 Answer the second question. Record up to 18 points for thoroughness of response 3 , accuracy 3 and completing the assignment according to the directions 3 for each essay answer.

Lesson 31 Write your position on immigration. What, if any, limitations should be put on the acceptance of immigrants into the country? What should be done for them once they are here? Record 10 points for a well-thought-out position. Scroll down. Lesson 33 Read Focus on the West. Take notes. Read the Nicodemus Circular. At the time of its settlement, how much money did Nicodemus have in its treasury? What were some of the effects of the wars with the Indians? Record 2 points for an answer in a complete sentence. Lesson 36 Look at the graph and learn about Native American populations in America. You can also view this later census data. If you like parsing data, here are modern-day numbers.

Write your position on Native Americans. What should have been done? Explain at the same time what would happen to European Americans as a result of your policy. Should anything be done now for Native Americans? Lesson 37 Because big kids want to have fun too…you can play this today. If you like it, you can play as long as you like; otherwise just complete part 1.

Read through the pages about Cowboys and the Chisholm Trail. Alternate link What were different aspects of cattle drives? Two points for a completed answer. Lesson 39 Read about Farming on the Plains. Scroll down to the second section. Take a look at the Homestead Act. Why would the United States government give away free land in the West? Read this account of the land rush. They lived for years in a home dug into a hillside with earth for a floor, and they were successful. But what sorts of problems do you think their nine neighbors might have encountered to make them willing to sell their homesteads to Seth and move away? Lesson 40 Read pages 5 and 6 of the Senate committee meeting on Chinese immigrants , Chinese immigration exploded at the gold rush.

What is this cartoon saying? How did Turner feel the frontier affected American social and institutional development? Farming Becomes a Business. Look at the photos to see what goes into running a farm: Farming on the Plains. Farming as a business required a lot of work but only at certain times like planting and harvesting. How would that create jobs for migrant workers? Read the third topic on the page, The Far West. Look at this map, United States Land Acquisitions. You can right click and open in a new tab to see it full size. What does the map represent? What do you think? How did westward expansion influence American history? How did this movement shape American political institutions?

Record up to 12 points. Lesson 42 Read topic one on the postwar industrial expansion. Thomas Edison inventions Click on the links on the right to see more. Lesson 43 Read about entrepreneurs : J. Morgan , Andrew Carnegie , John D. America became a wealthier country during this time period. Do you think it was because of these men? Explain how you think things would have played out without these men or others like them. For addressing the questions in Answer the three questions at the bottom of the page. Read the biography of Benjamin Harrison. Lesson 45 Read about life in the city , the whole thing.

Here are pictures to go with it. Two points for each example written in a complete sentence. Lesson 47 Watch the lecture on the populist and progressive reform movements. Look at this cartoon and read all about it. Why were political cartoons a more effective tool than newspaper articles? Remember that a complete answer includes the question. Lesson 49 Read about the populist party. Read this mini economics lesson in paper currency , just this one page. In that little article you read that the paper dollar is no longer tied to gold. It no longer represents gold. There is no gold standard. Read about when that happened and its result. All of these decisions make a big difference for a lot of people. How hard is it for politicians to know the impact of their decisions?

How hard is it for the general public to understand the impact of the decisions when they are choosing who to vote for? Is there a way for people to know the impact? What hides them from being able to understand? This is mostly because so much of politics is just based on sides. Whose side are you on? There is no thoughtful discussion, just us vs. Getting caught up in that clouds your judgment. A president or other leader has a similar problem because they belong to a side.

They have to keep their side happy to get money to get elected. Instead of serving the whole public as public servants, what all leaders are supposed to be, they are set up to serve the people who have the most money. People have the advantage of easy, cheap communication now which makes getting out a message a little easier, but the point can still easily be clouded over by skilled, expensive marketing. Lesson 50 Read the second topic, Corruption in Business and Government. Read the biography of James Garfield. What does this cartoon show? Lesson 51 Read the biography of Chester A. Read about President William McKinley. Read his speech on the Cross of Gold. Read only the last 3 paragraphs. Lesson 52 Read through the page, The Progressive Impulse. What does this political cartoon show?

Here are some pictures of the suffragettes on parade. They were active from and attempts to get women the vote during that time were unsuccessful. The parade in was at a time when their cause had great momentum. What do you think had changed? Lesson 53 Read through the page, The Progressive Presidents. Lesson 54 Here are some photographs of Teddy Roosevelt. Roosevelt read it and ordered an investigation of the meat industry.

What laws resulted? Read the biography of William Howard Taft. Although Wilson and Roosevelt had shared goals, what was an important idea to Wilson that Roosevelt did not share? What was the Boxer Rebellion? Why did America join in to end it? What was a result in the relationship between China and America? Read this article on Chinese vs. Negroes as American Citizens. Why did Samuel Raymond Scottron feel strongly about Chinese immigration?

Record up to 8 points. Read this excerpt from Dr. What is his opinion about the races? From that, what can you imply about his views on imperialism? Take a look at this strategic map of our war with Spain. Lesson 58 Read the article on Roosevelt as a modern president. How was Roosevelt a modern president? Answer in a complete sentence. They are 3rd and 4th on the page. How does this cartoon show what you read in the Roosevelt Corollary? Read this article on the US involvement in Haiti. Lesson 61 Finish reading the page on the Caribbean and the Mexican Revolution. Look at this map of Central America. What destroyed the alliance between Pancho Villa and the United States? Read this anti-war letter, Shall we have war with Mexico?

You can zoom to make it bigger. What is the main reason they are against involvement in a war in Mexico? Lesson 62 Choose a president from the course so far and write a paragraph about his impact as president, positive or negative. Include specific examples. Score 5 points for a complete paragraph and up to 5 points for meeting the given guidelines. Record your score out of Lesson 63 View the timeline. There are three parts. You may use your notes. Lesson 64 You decide: Roosevelt and Wilson. In that case your score is zero. The sample responses just give an idea of a response.

Lesson 65 Watch this lecture and take notes on the causes of WWI. Get a drink, but take notes. Lesson 68 Read the first section on US neutrality. Read the middle section on subs. Look through the images of the Lusitania disaster. Read about the Lusitania. It was officially, on record, carrying some munitions. Do you think America was justified in its outcry against this attack?

Why would Wilson consider a war against Germany to be a war for democracy? Lesson 70 Finish reading the page, Mobilizing a Nation for War. Look at the propaganda posters. What kinds of feelings do they try to evoke to get men to enlist sign up to fight? Do you think these would work today? Can you think of similar propaganda tactics? Think of commercials. What do you think would work to get people to enlist today? Read these court decisions, Espionage and Sedition. What is the difference in these two cases that caused opposite outcomes? Two points for 5 and four points for 3. The assignment on Lesson 71 is a long one. You might want to start today. Lesson 71 Watch the first half of this lecture on war in the trenches.

Take notes as you watch. Write a paragraph on African Americans in the military and on the fight for equal rights. Record 5 points for a complete paragraph that responds to both parts of the prompt with at least three points. Scroll down two-thirds of the way before looking for it. Read through the whole chapter, but read the first two sections especially carefully and thoughtfully. How does the author justify the government expanding and taking on more and more roles?

Was it necessary? When is government too big and doing too much? When is it not doing enough? Give specific examples to explain your thinking. If you think government is too big, who would take over the jobs that the government handles? Think it through. Two points for number three. Four points for number four. How did the government work against those who were against the war? Lesson 75 Read about the peace conferences at the end of WWI.

What would you think to be the most important? What would you think could be compromised on? Lesson 76 Read the three excerpts from the Peace Treaty of Versailles. What does it say might happen to a nation that violates a League covenant? Read these reparations against Germany after the war. Should the Germans have submitted to these or did the people have a right to defy them? Do you think these influenced the rise of the Nazis to power?

When you answer a question like this, you need to explain why or why not. Alternate link What were some of his reservations? Lesson 77 Read about the Elaine Massacre. What was behind it and the other similar struggles around America? Lesson 78 Watch the lecture on the Roaring Twenties. Complete the activity. Lesson 79 Read about the Roaring Twenties. Record a point for each. Before we move on, read about this event in American history that has mostly gone unmentioned. The date is There are Christians who live in communes, with everyone sharing all things. This is very different from governmental communism.

You can read about that here. Read this answer from The Trial of Sacco and Vanzetti. Why does he love socialism? What is wrong? What is good with communism? What is good with capitalism? Think about it. Talk about it with your parents. See the good and bad in each. Before you go, watch this short video explaining forms of government. Two points for each answer. Lesson 81 What is good in socialism? You need to write something about this now. I want 12 sentences. I want examples and thought-out reasons for your answers. Is there any way to take the good of each and leave the bad?

What would be an ideal government system? This needs to be a paragraph. Record up to 18 points. One point for each well-thought out sentence. Lesson 82 Read about the 18th and 21st amendments. What does the 21st amendment say that states can do? Read the Volstead Act. Two for each answer written in a complete sentence. If you want to take it, there is a link in the article. Choose the race test. Not only can blacks have a preference for whites, but that preference, or unconscious thought pattern, can carry over into other things. Studies show that test scores of black students drop simply by asking them to check their race before they begin a test. Garvey may seem extreme, but how do such studies and this article show that he has a point?

Read about the Harlem Renaissance. Lesson 84 Take a look at the Model T. How did it change as the years progressed? Read the presidential biographies. Record 4 points one for the Model T and one for each president if answered in a complete sentence. Write about them. Lesson 86 Answer the second question. This is the shortest it should be. You will score this on Lesson 88 for thoroughness and accuracy and following directions.

Lesson 87 Answer the third question. Lesson 88 Read the first question. Now, go back to the timeline — Start at Are there trends? Find something! What does that warning mean? Why is it important to study history? What lessons can be learned from what you have studied during the first half of the academic year? Record up to 15 points for answering each question in the directions with thoughtful responses.

Lesson 90 Read the last section of chapter 10 on the Great Depression. This is an overview of our next section of study. Listen to this lecture on the causes of the Great Depression. What were the long- and short-term causes of the Great Depression? What did Hoover do and not do during the first three years of his presidency? What did Hoover do during the final year of his presidency to tackle the growing problems of the Depression? Lesson 94 Read about the Great Depression years. Read down through the Smoot-Hawley Tariff. What were some of the human impacts of the Great Depression? Here are images from the Great Depression. Record up to 4 points, 2 for each answer in a complete sentence.

Lesson 98 Read about the Dust Bowl and look at the images. Read about the TVA. Look at the political cartoon. Hopkins worked with Eleanor Roosevelt to promote the New Deal programs. WPA was one of the New Deal agencies. The paper mentions billions in money from the public. The public has? What is the cartoon saying? Record 2 points for a thoughtful answer in a complete sentence. Lesson 99 Look at the images and read about the CCC. What message did he want to get across? Do I have to write it? Always answer with a complete sentence, one that restates the question so that the reader knows what you are answering.

Lesson Scroll down to the section on the second New Deal. Read through to the end of the page. What were some of the solutions offered by the social programs put in place from ? Lesson Read this page on relief and reform and explore the links below. Record up to 4 points for answering both questions in complete sentences. What were the origins of WWII? Record up to two points for your answer.

Lesson Watch this video history overview of the period. Lesson Read the Kellogg-Briand Pact. Read about the Kellogg-Briand Pact. What was its purpose? Read the first Inaugural Address of Hoover and Roosevelt. What did the Roosevelt administration agree to as part of the Good Neighbor Policy? Record up to 6 points up to 2 points each. Look at the Japanese expansion map. Look at this political cartoon, Only a Generation Apart.

Who and what is depicted in the cartoon? Record up to 6 points three questions. What are his arguments against intervention in the war? Why did he think Britain was losing the war? What historical events did Lindbergh fail to anticipate that would enable the United States to invade continental Europe successfully? Read the Three Power Pact. Look at the photos and read about Nazi control. France and Britain essentially handed Hitler, a fascist dictator, a portion of Czechoslovakia in at what conference? Lesson Read through this timeline. Read each line.

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