Courage In Stephen Cranes The Red Badge Of Courage

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Courage In Stephen Cranes The Red Badge Of Courage



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In escutcheon When borne as a charge on an actual shield, the image of a shield signifies defence. More formally, a shield on a shield is termed an in escutcheon and strictly, if more than one appears on the shield they should be referred to as escutcheons. When an in escutcheon appears on a shield it should conform to the shape of the shield on which it is placed. In German and Scottish armoury the in escutcheon bears the heart of the arms, or the paternal side, but in English heraldry it is used to carry the arms of an heiress wife.

Instruments Musical instruments are heraldic symbols that, in general, signify festivity and rejoicing. The clarion is an ancient brass instrument that is held in one had and blown over like a flute. The bearer of this sign may have been a musician or ceremonial trumpeter and like the trumpet it would signify the call to battle, or the mustering call for a crusade. They are suitable heraldic bearings for someone who would bravely follow such a sound into battle, thoughtfulness, and gently pursuits. The hunting horn, or bugle was adopted as a symbol of the chase in heraldry and it generally indicated a man fond of high pursuits. The chase was considered the most noble of employments next to war.

More specifically, the hunting horn was the sign of a hunter. There are other instruments used as charges as well, such as pipes, tabors and others, though their specific symbolic meanings are not certain. Key The key is a symbol of knowledge and of guardianship in heraldry. Two keys crossed in saltire is the emblem of St. Peter who held the keys to the gates of heaven, and this emblem is part of the insignia of His Holiness the Pope.

Label The label was a decorative piece of fabric, usually silk. It was a popular trimming for dress and during the Middle Ages. In heraldry, it is represented by a narrow band across the top of the shield, edged by another band from which three short bars hand down. Lately the bars have been drawn more like dovetails, like triangles inserted point first into the lower band. In English arms a label was a mark of difference indicating that the bearer was the eldest son and heir. Some labels on coats of arms can be traced to this origin. Ladder The ladder was a symbol of fearlessness in attack as the scaling of walls with ladders was an extremely dangerous tactic used in laying siege to a castle.

It is also a symbol of resolution in heraldry. The scaling-ladder, that is one with hooks on the ends to go over the edge of a wall so that the ladder is not merely leaning against the castle, may be a reminder to stand carefully on guard. Lapwing The lapwing bird is symbolic of strategy in heraldry because it outwits hunters by leading them away from its nest. Those who bear the sign of the lapwing are shrewd strategists. The lapwing also goes by the alternative names of peewhit, plover, and tyrwhitt. Laurel In ancient times, Laurel leaves were thought to be remedies against poison, as well as tokens of peace and quiet. Laurels were also symbol of victory in heraldry, first given to the winners in the early Olympic Games and later born by the conquerors such as Julius Caesar.

They are symbolic of triumph and fame, especially when it is gained after a long, inner struggle. Leopard In heraldry, the leopard is a symbol of a valiant warrior who braves dangers with force and courage. In early heraldry leopards were often represented passant guardant and there were often no less that two on a shield, while lions were usually rampant and usually no more than two.

In later times, both animals were called lions. Edward III is said to have conferred the device during his wars in France, as a reward to leaders who served under him in his victorious campaigns. The idea behind the symbol is that he leopard of the English arms is swallowing the lily of the French coat. Lily The lily is the emblem of purity and innocence in heraldry. It is also a symbol of the Virgin Mary. Though it is usually represented by the fleur-de-lis, the lily can also be in its natural form, which is not uncommonly found in heraldry. Lion The lion has always held a high place in heraldry as the emblem of deathless courage, and, hence, that of a valiant warrior. Through the somewhat dubious legend of their compassion, lions also came to symbolize Christ.

The lion, with such repute of its noble nature and having the position and title of king of the beasts, is naturally one of the most common heraldic symbols on the continent of Europe. In ancient times when animals were defined in by the position that they were in, the lion held the position of rampant. A walking cat was originally called a leopard, so the lions of England can probably be more accurately called leopards, but the popularity of the lion led to its acquiring many more positions, and thus the development of a terminology was necessary to describe them all. In addition to all of the positions a lion is found in, it can be found crowned or collared with two tails or two heads. Lozenge The lozenge is a symbol of honesty and constancy and it is also a token of noble birth.

It has four sides of equal length and is positioned point up, so that it resembles a diamond rather than a square. A lozenge throughout is a lozenge that has all four points touching the sides of the shield. The arms of a lady, as a maid or a widow, are always displayed on a lozenge. A mascle is an open lozenge, or a lozenge voided, and it is merely a lozenge with a smaller one removed from the inside.

It is said to be a piece on which armour was fastened, and to represent a mesh of a net. In heraldry, it signifies persuasion, and comparatively rare, type of lozenge, pierced in the centre with a circle. Lynx The lynx is an ancient heraldic symbol indicating that its bearer was possessed of particularly keen sight. It does not occur very often in heraldry except as a supporter, but is does occur in certain families on a crest. Man-tiger Manticora or mantegre are both names for a man-tiger, which has the body of a heraldic tiger and the head of an old man, with long spiral horns attached to its forehead. In heraldry, it is usually only found as a supporter for a coat of arms.

Martlet The martlet, or heraldic swallow, is a bird perceived as swift and elegant and is a device for someone prompt and ready in the dispatch of his business. It may also represent one who has to subsist on the wings of his virtue and merit alone. The martlet signifies nobility acquired through bravery, prowess or intelligence. On English arms it was a mark of cadency signifying the fourth son, for whom there was little doubt that there would be no land left for him to inherit. Interestingly, this heraldic symbol was a perpetuation of the popular belief that the swallow has no feet. This is supported by the fact that one never does see swallow standing, but regardless.

The martlet is consistently drawn without feet in heraldry. If the feet are drawn the symbol becomes a swallow, which is less common than the martlet. Mermaid In heraldry and Coats of Arms, the mermaid or merman is a favourite symbol for seafarers or anything related to the sea. The merman was also referred to as a triton and siren was occasionally an alternate name for mermaid. Both are symbols of eloquence. The mermaid is much more common and is generally represented with the traditional mirror and comb in her hands.

A melusine is a mermaid with two tails disposed on either side of her, commonly found in German heraldry. Mirror The mirror is a symbol of the imagination and truth. It is seldom found in heraldry except for the round mirror held in the right hand of a mermaid, but it dies appear occasionally as a charge in a coat of arms or on a crest. Moon The image of the moon is a symbol of the goddess Diana and indicates, in its bearer, the serene power to endure mundane duties.

The moon was said to have the sovereignty by night that the sun had by day. A face is usually represented in a full moon and sometimes in a crescent moon, but this must not be confused with an ordinary heraldic crescent, as they are not similar. Moorcock The Moorcock or heathcock is a curious bird that has the head and body of an ordinary cock united with either the flat tail of black game, or two or more large tail feathers at right angles to its body. Neither variation actually exists. Mural Crown The mural crown is plain gold circlet of battlements on a narrow rim. It is supposed to have been given by the Romans to the soldier that first mounted the breach in the walls of a town or fortress.

In heraldry, it would also apply to the defender of a fortress or be an appropriate token of civic honour. It is also called a tityron and it is very uncommon in heraldry. Naval Crown The naval crown is gold and uniquely ornamented with alternating topsails and stems of ancient galleys. Some heralds say that the Emperor Claudius invented it as a reward for service at sea. Oak Leaves Oak leaves are religious symbols of faith and endurance in heraldry. Opinicus An opinicus is a very rare creature in heraldry. Another description gives it the tail of a camel. It may also have the big ears of a griffin or just the head of an eagle, and sometimes the wings are omitted. Orange An orange is the name given to a tawny roundel, a roundel being any circular charge of colour or metal.

It is supposed to represent a tennis ball. Tennis was once a game played strictly by royalty and nobles and the orange indicates that the bearer was a member of that class; however, the orange is seldom met in heraldry. Ostrich The image of an ostrich is symbolic of faith and contemplation in heraldry. The ostrich is represented in heraldry in its natural form and is a very common charge; in fact it is one of the birds met with most often, after the eagle and the falcon. Until recent times the ostrich was always depicted holding something in its beak such as a horseshoe or a key.

Thee digestive capabilities of the ostrich have been fabulously exaggerated at times, and even now the ostrich has a popular reputation for being able to eat anything. Early natural history books show it ingesting inedible food such as these metal objects, and it is possible that at one time ostriches were actually believed to eat these things. Even now an ostrich is seldom found without something present in its mouth. Otter The image of an otter denotes that its bearer possesses industry and perseverance, as well as an ability to return to moments of play. Otters were formerly more abundant in streams that they are now and otter hunting was a once a common pastime, so they are born in the arms of several families and are also the supporters for some arms.

The otter is most often found as a symbol in Scottish and Irish coats of arms; however, it is by no meant restricted to them. The owl is always depicted in heraldry with its face affronte, or facing the observer, though the body is not usually so placed. Pale The pale is a vertical band down the shield denoting great defensive military strength. Protective railings were made of pales.

It has often been bestowed on those who have defended cities, supported the government of the sovereign, or stood strong for the country under stress. The guidelines of heraldry instruct that the pale is to occupy on third of the width of the shield, though this is not always strictly followed. The pallet or palet is a diminutive of the pale. Pall As a device on a crest, the pall represents the ecclesiastical vestment called a pallium and is symbolic of archiepiscopal authority. As a charge in heraldry, the end is always couped, meaning that it does not extend to the edge of the shield, and fringed. The pall, also called a pairle and a shakefork, is often found in the arms of archbishops and Sees.

The pall also occurs as an ordinary, a background symbol, especially in Scottish heraldry. Here it is usually borne with all three ends couped and pointed. Panther The panther is said to represent a beautiful woman who is tender and loving to her young, and will defend them even with her own life in jeopardy. It is a symbol of bravery in defence of the weak. It is difficult to know whether to class the panther with actual or mythical creatures in heraldry.

Often it is depicted flammant or incensed, with flames issuing from its mouth and ears. On the continent the panther is often depicted with the tail of a lion, horns, and the claws of an eagle on its forelegs. Early armorial representations show a more natural representation, but they quickly disappear in favour of artistic creativity. Parrot The parrot or a popinjay, as it is termed in heraldry, is realistically drawn.

Its image may signify distinguished service in a tropical country. Passion Nails Passion nails are borne as a reminder of poignant suffering that the first bearer of the arms underwent. For example, Sir R. Logan bore the shield of three black passion nails piercing a red heart, for accompanying James Douglas to Jerusalem with the heard of Robert the Bruce. Peacock In ancient times, it was believed that the flesh of the peacock would not decay. It was therefore used in heraldry as a symbol of resurrection and immortality. The peacock represented in pride refers to a peacock observed from the front with its tail feathers splayed. Pegasus An image of Pegasus, the legendary winged horse, is said to signify exceeding activity and energy of mind, whereby one may mount to honour.

It is also an emblem of fame in heraldry. This beautiful horse of mythology is not an unusual symbol in heraldry and is used often as a crest. Pelican The female pelican was believed to wound her breast with her long, curved bill, drawing blood to feed her young. But for this noble act, the bird became a symbol of piety, self-sacrifice, and virtue associated with the Holy Eucharist. The pelican in heraldry does not traditionally have the large pouched beak of the natural bird though modern representations have given it a more realistic appearance.

Pellet A black roundel is given the various names of pellet, ogress and gunstone, a roundel being any circular charge of colour or metal. Black roundels represent cannon balls and bullets and may indicate that the first bearer was an artilleryman, or that he braved the dangers of these things in battle. It may have been intended to appear globular on the shield, rather than flat like most other roundels, so an artist may shade it accordingly. Pellettee describes a shield strewn with pellets. Phoenix The phoenix is a symbol from Greek mythology, of immortality, rebirth and renewal. Legend states that at the end of its long life, this legendary bird built a pyre of spice-wood in the desert. It ignited the pyre by fanning its wings in the heat of the sun, plunged into the fire and was burned to ashes.

Then a rejuvenated phoenix rose out of the cinders, born again. The phoenix is also a symbol of love in heraldry. It is often found as a symbol on a crest, accompanied by the flames that it rose out of renewed. Pike The pike is a heraldic symbol for a military family and indicates prowess and fortitude in bearers of this charge. This fish is also a symbol of the forces of industry and science and early Christians frequently used the pike as an emblem of their faith. The pike is frequently found inn ancient arms though it may be referred to by the alternate names of lucy, luce, ged, geddes, pyke, jack, or the name of a pike of the sea, hake. It is distinguishable from other fish by its large head and long mouth.

In early arms the pikeis always found hauriant, or upright, but this is not always the case anymore. Pile The pile is a large piece of wood used by engineers in fortifications and bridge construction. The image of the pile was granted to military leaders for significant deeds. Or to those who showed great ability in any kind of construction. In heraldry a pile looks like an inverted triangle issuing, point invaders, from any point along the crest except the base.

It may, if specified, issue from the base as well, if accompanied by piles issuing from other points of the escutcheon. They may terminate in fleurs-de-lis or crosses patee. Pineapple Unless the arms described were granted in connection with a pineapplegrowing country, the term pineapple, in heraldry, actually refers to a pinecone. It is symbolic of the inexhaustible abundance of life in nature. The association is derived from the fact that the pine tree remained green in the winter when others appeared dead. But real pineapples also exist in the armoury. Occasionally pineapples were granted as a symbol of distinguished service in a country where such fruit grew.

Plate The plate is a white of silver roundel, a roundel being any circular charge of colour or metal. It represents a silver coin found in Spain during the Crusades. The plate signifies generosity in heraldry. Pomegranate In heraldry, the pomegranate is a symbol of fertility and abundance. The association is derived from the fact that the pomegranate is a fruit composed almost entirely of seeds and was thought to reproduce itself prodigiously because of this. The pomegranate dimidiated with a rose, meaning that the two half charges are joined, was one of the badges of Queen Mary of England, who ruled from Pomme Pomme or pomeis is the heraldic name given to a green roundel, a roundel being any circular charge of colour or metal.

The pomme represents an apple and signifies good luck. Most fruit was considered a token of good luck and symbolized the generosity of nature. Portcullis A portcullis is a great, barred, iron gate with spikes on the bottom, suspended over the main gate of a castle to be dropped before enemies could invade the castle. In heraldry, it signifies an effective protection in emergency, as it was used to guard the entrance to the fortress and could be suddenly lowered against a surprise attack, when there was no time to raise the drawbridge or close the weighty doors.

Borne on a shield, a portcullis usually indicates that the bearer is a great defender in an emergency. In some cases it indicates that the original bearer operated the portcullis in a fort. It is the well-known badge of the Royal House of Tudor. It is drawn points down with chains attached to its upper corners, though the disposition of the chains is a matter left to the artist. Quarter The quarter alone is not particularly common in heraldry. Of course it often occurs, though, as a division of a field blazoned quarterly, which is divided into four quarters. It superimposes all other charges or ordinaries on a field and unless it is an origin charge, and not added later, it need not conform to the rule forbidding colour on colour, or metal on metal.

It is sometimes used as an augmentation of honour and it is also a mark used to distinguish the arms of one branch of a family from another, or that the name and arms of a family have been assumed where there is no blood descent. Rainbow The rainbow is an ancient heraldic sign of peace, sage travel, and good luck. The rainbow has similar connotations of luck and peacefulness in many other cultures also. It is not often used as a charge on a shield but has been granted in crest since olden days. The proper colours of a heraldic rainbow are gold, red, green and silver.

Ram The ram is a symbol of authority and leadership in heraldry. A person who bore such a device on his shield was supposed to possess all of the power and nobility that was attributed to the ram. The ramis often rampant, or in the fighting position on a crest or coat of arms, though it is also found in the positions of passant, statant and couchant. Raven As the collector of bright objects, the raven stands as a symbol of knowledge in heraldry.

It is also an emblem of divine providence. The raven is said to be a Danish device used as a heraldic symbol very early in history. Visually no differentiation is made between the symbols of a raven, a rook or a crow. The symbol of the crow signifies that the bearer is someone who is watchful and vigilant for friends. It may indicate that the bearer is crafty and strategic, to the disadvantage of his enemies. It also signifies vigilance in watching over friends. According to Cornish legend, the spirit of King Arthur inhabited the chough. The chough distinguished from its counterparts by its red beak and legs. Reeds Reeds represent the just, who are said to dwell on the riverbanks of grace. And because it clusters thickly and is a common plant, in heraldry bulrushes are symbolic of the multitude of faithful who lead a humble life and abide by the Christian teaching.

This symbol may also be granted to recall a memorable event that occurred near water where bulrushes were abundant. Rhinoceros The rhinoceros fights with great ferocity when aroused, but never seeks combat. Borne on a shield, the symbol indicated the same characteristics in its bearer. It is a very uncommon charge in heraldry, observed in only a few instances. Rose The rose is a symbol of hope and joy; it is first among flowers and expresses beauty and grace.

With a red blossom, it is a symbol of martyrdom. The white rose expresses love and faith and in Christian symbolism, it signifies purity. The yellow rose is a symbol of absolute achievement in heraldry. The conventional form of a heraldic rose have five displayed petals that mimic the look of a wild rose on a hedgerow. The famous Wars of Roses, between the red rose of the house of Lancaster and the white rose of the house of York, ended after the succession of the Tudors to the throne. After this the heraldic rose developed a double row of petals which was obviously in effort to combine the rival emblems, although the element of increasing familiarity with the cultivated rosewas also present. During the reign of the Tudors there was a more naturalistic trend in heraldry, and stems and leaves were added to the rose.

Nevertheless, heraldry has accomplished what horticulture could not, and roses will be found tinted blue, black and green, in addition to more natural colours. Salamander The salamander signified a man of faith, and was also considered a sign of good luck. It is usually described as a dragon in flames of fire, and is sometimes represented this way, only without the wings. More frequently, though, the symbol simply indicates the shape of a lizard. The salamander is best known as the personal device of Francis I, King of France, to which origin the arms of the city of Paris can be traced.

Satyr In heraldry, a satyr is compose of a demi-savage, or half of a man with a few inhuman characteristics such as large pointed ears, united with the hind-legs of a goat so that he walks upright on tow hooves. Satyrs are not found in coats of arms except for supporters and occasionally their heads are found used as charges. Satyral A Satyral has the body of a lion, the face of an old man and the horns of an antelope. It is usually only used as a supporter in a coat of arms and is not particularly common in heraldry.

Sceptre The sceptre is a symbol of justice and a chief emblem of royal authority. It is seldom borne alone. Frequently it occurs in the hand of a king or a saint, and it can also be found crossed, saltirewise, with a sword. Scythe The image of a sickle or a scythe, also sometimes termed a sned, expresses the hope of a fruitful harvest of things desired. Sea horse In heraldry, the sea-horse is an emblem of safe travel, particularly by sea. The heraldic sea-horse, however, does not resemble the natural seahorse at all.

It is an imaginary creature with the head, chest and forelegs of a horse, webbed feet like a frog in place of its hooves and a scaled body that flows into the large powerful tail of a fish, which if properly drawn, circles around itself in a coil. In Ireland, the serpent may be used as an emblem of St. Patrick, an association derived from the legend of St. Patrick clearing Ireland of snakes. Serpents also represent knowledge. There is nothing to distinguish a serpent or a snake from any of the other names given to it in heraldry such as cobra, adder, or bis.

The serpent may be found in a variety of positions such as erect, gliding or fessways, or involved, meaning in a curly-queue. Ship The ship is an emblem of joy, happiness and adventure in heraldry. It usually points to some notable quest at sea, by which the first bearer became famous, but in more ancient bearings the emblem may have simply been derived from a long-standing seafaring tradition. In heraldic terms there are three basic ships that may be used as a device on a shield: The ship, the lymphad and the galley. A lymphadusually only has one mast and a galley has three but the main differences between them are found in the shape and style of the vessel. Because there are so many different types of ships they must be carefully described in the blazon with respect to the number of masts and top-masts, the sails and the rigging.

Shuttle In heraldry the shuttle is a symbol of industry and productivity. Spear Though the spear, the spearhead and the broken spear are all very similar devices, they each have a distinct symbolic meaning in heraldry. The spear, lance or tilting-spear is an emblem of knightly service that signifies devotion to honour and chivalry. On the other hand, the spearhead, or javelin, is a deadly device of ancient origin, first made of iron and later of fine steel. It is said to represent dexterity and nimbleness of wit, a person able to penetrate and understand matters of the highest consequence.

The spear is distinct form the lance, javelin and the heraldic tilting-spear, in that it is always drawn with a sharp point for warfare, instead of blunt, as it would have been for a tournament. The arms of William Shakespeare were composed of a gold tilting-spear of the field on a black bend. Spur A crest or coat or arms with the device of a spur on it was awarded to men who had done magnificent deeds. The spur could appear more ornate if it was winged, or the simpler device of a spur-rowel or spur-revel might be used. This was a dangerous implement, used by knights to stimulate their war-horses into action.

It signifies preparedness for active service in heraldry. It occurs in many English coats of arms ant it is always depicted sejant in a sitting position , though with a squirrel the arms are always raised, and very frequently, cracking a nut. It denotes Episcopal jurisdiction and authority. Stag The stag has a variety of symbolic meanings in heraldry. It can indicate someone skilful in music and a lover of harmony. It may also indicate a person who foresees opportunities well. In the latter case it is a symbol used for one who is unwilling to assail enemies rashly, who would rather stand his own ground that harm another wrongfully, and one who will not fight unless provoked.

Harmony, polity and peace are particularly associated with the female deer, called a hind or a doe. The person bearing this symbol was considered impervious to weapons. Other names for a deer include a brocket, which is a young stag, a buck, roe, roebuck, and a fawn. Staple Although their exact meaning is not known, it is thought that staples were used as trade symbols. It is sometimes referred to as a door-staple and it is usually used in heraldry as a pun on a name like Dunstaple, for example. In England, mullets have five points unless another number is specified. In France, a mullet has no less than six points. Sun The sun is an emblem of glory and brilliance in heraldry.

It is also a symbol of authority. It represents happiness, life and spirituality. The rising sun is a symbol of hope. The rays are alternatively straight and wavy, which symbolize the head and light that we derive from them, and the heraldic sun usually has a human face though this is not strictly necessary. Rays of the sun, also called beams, are sometimes borne singly as in the ancient rolls, bur more often they issue from other charges when described by one of the terms as radiant, rayonne or rayonnant.

Sunflower The sunflower signifies that just as the flower turns toward the sun, so the bearer turns to the light and glory, symbolized by the sun. The marigold is an ancient heraldic emblem of devotion and piety, very close to a sunflower in shape and meaning. Swan The swan is the ensign of poets and musicians. It symbolized perfection, beauty and grace in heraldry. The swan is a favourite symbol in heraldry, often found on crests and shields. It is most often drawn close, though it can be found in other positions as well and sometimes even swimming. Sword The sword is said to be the emblem of military honour and should incite the bearer to a just and generous pursuit of honour and virtue. In heraldry, it is symbolic of liberty and strength. In the Middle Ages, the sword was often used as a symbol of the word of God.

The sword especially borne with flames is also a symbol of purification. When borne with a cross in the same field, the sword signifies the defence of the Christian faith. The usual form is a long straight blade with a cross handle, though the blade may also be waved or embrued. There are also specific types of swords that may be described such as the falchion or seax, which is a broad bladed, slightly curved sword with a semi-circular notch at the back of the blade. Others include a scimitar, cutlass or sabre. A sword is often depicted piercing an animal or a human heart. Two swords crossed in saltire is an emblem of St.

Thistle The thistle is an ancient heraldic emblem of pain and suffering. Legend states that the thistle was chosen as the royal badge of Scotland as a result of the battle of Largs in The Danish enemy, King Harco, had landed and was advancing inland under cover of darkness, when one of his barefoot followers trod on a thistle and gave aw howl of pain that raised the alarm.

The first appearance of the thistle as a royal badge was in , when it was stamped on the back of the silver coinage of James III. Durning this period badges were so largely used that it is possible that the King chose the thistle with this legend in mind, though he would have done so mainly to vie with the neighbouring kingdom of England. The heraldic thistle has a short stalk and two long leaves with the flowered head in the middle. Though it is usually represented proper it can also be found gold. Thunderbolt The thunderbolt is an ancient heraldic emblem of sovereignty, power and speed.

It is derived from the classic mythology in which the thunderbolt is ascribed to the Roman god Jupiter, or the Greek god Zeus. It occurs very seldom in heraldry and usually only in crests. Tiger The tiger signifies great fierceness and valour when enraged to combat. In heraldry, it also symbolises one whose resentment will be dangerous if aroused. The tiger depicted in heraldry was the attempt of artist to portray an animal they had never seen and knew only by repute. Later the Bengal tiger was added to the armoury due to the influence of India and the Eastern lands. It looks considerably more like the real animal than the heraldic tiger.

The symbol of a tiger and mirror together refers to the medieval belief that after capturing a tiger cub, on could escape from its pursuing mother by throwing down a mirror in her path. She would believe the reflection to be her cub and try to rescue it, thus giving time for the hunter to escape. Torch The torch or firebrand signifies truth, knowledge, purification and love in heraldry. Collaborations with a range of prestigious national and international clinical and academic centers. She holds an appointment as adjunct professor at the University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia and as a visiting professor at the Baker Institute in Melbourne, Australia. The Brain and Behaviour Initiative BBI enables cross-faculty, multidisciplinary, collaborative research in the cognitive and affective neurosciences and brings together expertise on phenotyping, genotyping, cognotyping, brain imaging and molecular signatures to address brain-behaviour issues.

New experimental techniques including brain imaging, genetic testing and neuropsychological assessment combined with new theoretical insights have opened up significant potential for the advancement of novel diagnostic tools and treatments for people with mental disorders. The initial focus on trauma and resilience has now extended to work in substance use and NeuroHIV. Her research focuses on child lung health including HIV-associated lung disease, childhood pneumonia and childhood TB.

In she received the World Lung Health Award, awarded by the American Thoracic Society at a ceremony in San Diego, in recognition of work that has "the potential to eliminate gender, racial, ethnic, or economic health disparities worldwide". Currently regarded as a thought leader in Rheumatic Heart Disease, both on the continent and internationally. Has significant international research collaborations within the Rheumatic Heart Disease Community and within the Cardiovascular Community.

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