Japanese War Brides Analysis
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The United Nations definition of war crime will be adopted for the argument made in this article. Even for those who have a shallow knowledge of the holocaust, it is clear that it has been the biggest genocide to have ever occurred. Six million Jews were systematically killed without mercy. They were lied to, gathered and led to their deathbeds just like animals to an abattoir. It is clear that the holocaust was a war crime by the fact that, these were innocent civilians UN 1 who were targeted specifically because of the hatred that Hitler had for them. As a matter of fact, the outbreak of the WW II had nothing to do with the Jews and it is clear that the Jews were specifically targeted for elimination.
They were transported from foreign regions outside Germany and brought to the concentration camps to face their death. The Holocaust is a classical example of how the deep the hatred of men can be. This is yet another event that qualifies to be considered a war crime. The bombs were dropped in a highly populated city and there were so many deaths. Targeting of civilians is an act of a war crime and this is what happened at Dresden when the Russians attacked the Dresden.
Bombing of residential houses is clear indication of targeting civilians UN 1 and the Dresden bombing should be classified as a war crime. In as much as the US might have wanted to stop the war by using the atomic bombs, it was aware the bombs would affect the civilians more than anything else. Think of the radiations which were going to affect people for generations.
The physical structures could be easily put up again after the war but the genetically deformation and resultants mutation arising from exposure to the atomic bombs would be disastrous on the human beings. It was clear that the United States wanted to prove its mightiness but then it was done at the expense of innocent civilians. It should be noted that Nagasaki and Hiroshima were not villages but cities filled with civilians and not army artilleries. War ships and barracks are not found in cities. It is very clear that the US was on its way to annihilate the Japanese in the most mercilessly and cruel manner. Had war ships and barracks been targeted, it could have been blamed on the war but this was not the case as civilians were targeted. The above brief discussion has made it clear that the three events were war crimes.
It is a war crime to gather six million people and gas them systematically. It is a war crime to bomb cities with a full knowledge that there are thousands of civilians in those cities and not even a single war ship. A ritual illness that only affects men is believed to be caused by a spirit called awre. This affliction presents itself by loss of appetite, nausea, and attacks from severe stomach pains. If it persists the victim may enter a trancelike stupor, in which he sometimes regains consciousness long enough to take food and water. Breathing is often labored. Seizures and trembling overcome the patient, and in extreme cases, partial paralysis of the extremities. If the victim does not recover naturally, a traditional healer, or sagwara , is summoned.
Once the sagwara has determined the spirit's name through the use of divination, he prescribes a routine formula to exorcise the spirit. This is not a permanent cure, however, it is believed to allow the victim to form a relationship with the spirit. Nevertheless, the victim is subject to chronic repossession, which is treated by repeating the formula. This formula involves the preparation and consumption of a dish of ensete , butter, and red pepper. During this ritual, the victim's head is covered with a drape, and he eats the ensete ravenously while other ritual participants participate by chanting.
The ritual ends when the possessing spirit announces that it is satisfied. Shack notes that the victims are overwhelmingly poor men, and that women are not as food-deprived as men are due to ritual activities that involve food redistribution and consumption. Shack postulates that the awre serves to bring the possessed man to the center of social attention, and to relieve his anxieties over his inability to gain prestige from redistributing food, which is the primary way in which Gurage men gain status in their society.
The belief in spirit possession is part of the native culture of the Sidama people of southwest Ethiopia. Anthropologists Irene and John Hamer postulated that it is a form of compensation for being deprived within Sidama society, although they do not draw from I. Lewis see Cultural anthropology section under Scientific views. The majority of the possessed are women whose spirits demand luxury goods to alleviate their condition, but men can be possessed as well.
Possessed individuals of both sexes can become healers due to their condition. Hamer and Hamer suggest that this is a form of compensation among deprived men in the deeply competitive society of the Sidama, for if a man cannot gain prestige as an orator, warrior, or farmer, he may still gain prestige as a spirit healer. Women are sometimes accused of faking possession, but men never are. In many of the Diasporic traditional African religions , possessing spirits are not necessarily harmful or evil, but are rather seeking to rebuke misconduct in the living. In Haitian Vodou and related African diaspora traditions , one way that those who participate or practice can have a spiritual experience is by being possessed by the Loa or lwa.
When the loa descends upon a practitioner, the practitioner's body is being used by the spirit, according to the tradition. Some spirits are believed to be able to give prophecies of upcoming events or situations pertaining to the possessed one, also called Chwal or the "Horse of the Spirit. Most people who are possessed by the spirit describe the onset as a feeling of blackness or energy flowing through their body as if they were being electrocuted. According to Vodou believers, when this occurs, it is a sign that a possession is about to take place. According to tradition, the practitioner has no recollection of the possession and in fact when the possessing spirit leaves the body, the possessed one is tired and wonders what has happened during the possession.
It is also believed that there are those who feign possessions because they want attention or a feeling of importance, because those who are possessed carry a high importance in ceremony. Often, a chwal will undergo some form of trial or testing to make sure that the possession is allegedly genuine. If the chwal consumes the piment without showing any evidence of pain or discomfort, the possession is regarded as genuine. The concept of spirit possession is also found in Umbanda , an Afro-Brazilian folk religion. According to tradition, one such possessing spirit is Pomba Gira , who possesses both women and effeminate males. The culture of Hoodoo was created by African Americans.
There are regional styles to this tradition, and as African Americans traveled the tradition of Hoodoo changes according to African Americans environment. Hoodoo includes reverence to ancestral spirits, African American quilt making, herbal healing, Bakongo and Igbo burial practices, Holy Ghost shouting, praise houses , snake reverence, African American churches, spirit possession, some Nkisi practices , Black Spiritual churches , black theology, the ring shout, the Kongo cosmogram, Simbi water spirits, graveyard conjure, the crossroads spirit, making conjure canes, incorporating animal parts, pouring of libations, bible conjure, and conjuring in the African American tradition.
According to the Indian medical literature and Tantric Buddhist scriptures, most of the "seizers", or those that threaten the lives of young children, appear in animal form: cow, lion, fox, monkey, horse, dog, pig, cat, crow, pheasant, owl, and snake. However, apart from these "nightmare shapes", it is believed the impersonation or incarnation of animals could in some circumstances also be highly beneficial, according to Michel Strickmann. Ch'i Chung-fu, a Chinese gynecologist writing early in the 13th century, wrote that in addition to five sorts of falling frenzy classified according to their causative factors, there were also four types of other frenzies distinguished by the sounds and movements given off by the victim during his seizure: cow, horse, pig, and dog frenzies.
Certain sects of Taoism , Korean shamanism , Shinto , some Japanese new religious movements , and other East Asian religions feature the idea of spirit possession. Some sects feature shamans who supposedly become possessed; mediums who allegedly channel beings' supernatural power; or enchanters are said to imbue or foster spirits within objects, like samurai swords. The Urapmin people of the New Guinea Highlands practice a form of group possession known as the "spirit disco" Tok Pisin : spirit disko.
The concept of spirit possession appears in Chuuk State , one of the four states of Federated States of Micronesia. Although Chuuk is an overwhelmingly Christian society, traditional beliefs in spirit possession by the dead still exist, usually held by women, and "events" are usually brought on by family conflicts. The supposed spirits, speaking through the women, typically admonish family members to treat each other better. Roman Catholic doctrine states that angels are non-corporeal, spiritual beings  with intelligence and will.
From its beginning, Christianity has held that possession derives from the Devil , i. Satan , his lesser demons, the fallen angels. In addition, Saul was only described to be tormented, rather than possessed, and he was relieved from these torments by having David play the lyre to him. Another possible case of demonic possession in the Old Testament includes the false prophets that king Ahab relied upon before re-capturing Ramoth-Gilead in 1 Kings They were described to be empowered by a deceiving spirit.
The New Testament mentions several episodes in which Jesus drove out demons from persons. An example of this is Judas Isacriot , who fell under the Devil's possession in John because he continually agreed to the Devil's suggestions to betray Jesus and wholly submitted to him. The New Testament of The Holy Bible indicates that people can be possessed by demons This is linguistically debatable according to the original Greek text. Nestle-Aland, page , et al , but that the demons respond and submit to Jesus Christ's authority:. See Nestle-Aland, p. He cried out at the top of his voice, 34 "Ha!
What do you want with us, Jesus of Nazareth? Have you come to destroy us? I know who you are—the Holy One of God! With authority and power he gives orders to evil spirits and they come out! It also indicates that demons can possess animals as in the exorcism of the Gerasene demoniac. In the Roman Ritual , true demonic or satanic possession has been characterized since the Middle Ages , by the following four typical characteristics:  . The New Catholic Encyclopedia states, "Ecclesiastical authorities are reluctant to admit diabolical possession in most cases, because many can be explained by physical or mental illness alone. Therefore, medical and psychological examinations are necessary before the performance of major exorcism.
The standard that must be met is that of moral certitude De exorcismis , For an exorcist to be morally certain, or beyond reasonable doubt, that he is dealing with a genuine case of demonic possession, there must be no other reasonable explanation for the phenomena in question". Official Catholic doctrine affirms that demonic possession can occur as distinguished from mental illness ,  but stresses that cases of mental illness should not be misdiagnosed as demonic influence.
Catholic exorcisms can occur only under the authority of a bishop and in accordance with strict rules; a simple exorcism also occurs during baptism. The infliction of demonic torment upon an individual has been chronicled in premodern Protestant literature. In , King James discussed four methods of daemonic influence upon an individual in his book Daemonologie : . King James attested that the symptoms derived from demonic possession could be discernible from natural diseases.
He rejected the symptoms and signs prescribed by the Catholic church as vain e. The Rites of the Catholic Church to remedy the torment of demonic spirits were rejected as counterfeit since few possessed could be cured by them. James therefore declared the Protestant view of casting out devils, "It is easy then to understand that the casting out of Devils, is by the virtue of fasting and prayer, and in-calling of the name of God, suppose many imperfections be in the person that is the instrument, as CHRIST himself teaches us Mat. In medieval Great Britain, the Christian church had offered suggestions on safeguarding one's home. Suggestions ranged from dousing a household with holy water , placing wax and herbs on thresholds to "ward off witches occult," and avoiding certain areas of townships known to be frequented by witches and Devil worshippers after dark.
After the prayers, if quiet, they might come in to receive the bishop's blessing and listen to the sermon. They were daily fed and prayed over by the exorcists, and, in case of recovery, after a fast of from 20 to 40 days, were admitted to the Eucharist , and their names and cures entered in the church records. In May , the Baptist Deliverance Study Group of the Baptist Union of Great Britain , a Christian denomination , issued a "warning against occult spirituality following the rise in people trying to communicate with the dead". The commission reported that "becoming involved in activities such as Spiritualism can open up a doorway to great spiritual oppression which requires a Christian rite to set that person free".
In both charismatic and evangelical Christianity, exorcisms of demons are often carried out by individuals or groups belong to the deliverance ministries movement. Spirit possession appears in both Islamic theology and wider cultural tradition. Although opposed by some Muslim scholars, sleeping near a graveyard or a tomb is believed to enable contact with the ghosts of the dead, who visit the sleeper in dreams and provide hidden knowledge. Jinn are much more physical than spirits,  however, due to their subtle bodies , which are composed of fire and air marijin min nar , they are purported to be able to possess the bodies of humans.
Such physical intrusion of the jinn is conceptually different from the whisperings of the devils. There are various reasons given as to why a jinn might seek to possess an individual, such as falling in love with them, taking revenge for hurting them or their relatives, or other undefined reasons. In contrast to Jinn , the shayatin are inherently evil. Although forbidden in the Hebrew Bible , magic was widely practiced in the late Second Temple Period and well documented in the period following the destruction of the Temple into the 3rd, 4th, and 5th centuries C.
According to the Catholic Encyclopedia , Jewish methods of exorcism were described in the Book of Tobias. In the 16th century , Isaac Luria , a Jewish mystic , wrote about the transmigration of souls seeking perfection. His disciples took his idea a step further, creating the idea of a dybbuk , a soul inhabiting a victim until it had accomplished its task or atoned for its sin. The Baal Shem could expel a harmful dybbuk through exorcism. Shamanism is a religious practice that involves a practitioner who is believed to interact with a spirit world through altered states of consciousness , such as trance.
Wiccans believe in voluntary possession by the Goddess , connected with the sacred ceremony of Drawing Down the Moon. The high priestess solicits the Goddess to possess her and speak through her. The works of Jean Rouch , Germaine Dieterlen , and Marcel Griaule have been extensively cited in research studies on possession in Western Africa that extended to Brazil and North America due to the slave trade. The anthropologist I. Lewis noted that women are more likely to be involved in spirit possession cults than men are, and postulated that such cults act as a means of compensation for their exclusion from other spheres within their respective cultures.
Anthropologists Alice B. Kehoe and Dody H. Giletti argued that the reason that women are more commonly seen in Afro-Eurasian spirit possession cults is because of deficiencies in thiamine , tryptophan - niacin , calcium , and vitamin D. They argued that a combination of poverty and food taboos cause this problem, and that it is exacerbated by the strains of pregnancy and lactation.
They postulated that the involuntary symptoms of these deficiencies affecting their nervous systems have been institutionalized as spirit possession. Spirit possession of any kind, including demonic possession is not a psychiatric or medical diagnosis recognized by either the DSM-5 or the ICD People alleged to be possessed by spirits sometimes exhibit symptoms similar to those associated with mental illnesses such as psychosis , catatonia , hysteria , mania , Tourette's syndrome , epilepsy , schizophrenia , or dissociative identity disorder ,    including involuntary, uncensored behavior, and an extra-human, extra-social aspect to the individual's actions.
In entry article on Dissociative Identity Disorder , the DSM-5 states, "possession-form identities in dissociative identity disorder typically manifest as behaviors that appear as if a 'spirit,' supernatural being, or outside person has taken control such that the individual begins speaking or acting in a distinctly different manner". Some have expressed concern that belief in demonic possession can limit access to health care for the mentally ill. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Purported control of a human body by spirits, ghosts, demons, or gods. See also: Obsession Spiritism and Mediumship. Main articles.
Anomalous experiences Apparitional experiences Brainwashing Death and culture False awakening Hypnosis Ideomotor phenomenon Lucid dreaming Out-of-body experiences Parapsychology Synchronicity. Basic concepts. Case studies. Related articles. Major theorists. Augustin Calmet Akbar S. Further information: Zebola. See also: Saka. See also: Amafufunyana. See also: East Asian religions. Main article: Chinese spirit possession. See also: Buta Kola. Further information: Nympholepsy. See also: Baptism with the Holy Spirit and Holy laughter. Main articles: Shedim and Shade mythology. Main article: Dybbuk. See also: Culture-bound syndrome and Bicameral mentality. Main article: List of channelers mediumship.
Religion portal. Tibetan Medicine Education center. Retrieved 12 December Lama Yeshe Wisdom Archive. Retrieved 8 December Bible Gateway. Retrieved 21 November Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Retrieved 10 December Detroit, MI: Gale. Cambridge University Press. Deutschland: Springer International Publishing. Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved 20 November Encyclopaedia Britannica. Behavioral and Brain Sciences. PMID S2CID Retrieved 20 May Shamanism, religious phenomenon centred on the shaman, a person believed to achieve various powers through trance or ecstatic religious experience.
ISBN Adler, Margo Drawing Down the Moon. Allen, Tim July JSTOR CS1 maint: date and year link Al-Krenawi, A. Clinical Social Work Journal.