World War 1 Comparison
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World War 1 VS World War 2 - How Do They Compare?
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He promised to make Italy a great power by adding to its colonial empire. The Tanggu Truce , a ceasefire , was signed in In , the Kuomintang and the communists agreed to stop fighting against each other and to fight Japan instead. After the end of the German Empire , the democratic Weimar Republic was set up. There were disagreements among Germans that involved many political ideologies , ranging from nationalism to communism. The fascist movement in Germany rose because of the Great Depression. Adolf Hitler , the leader of the Nazi Party , became the German chancellor in After the Reichstag fire , Hitler created a totalitarian state in which there was only one party by law.
In March , Hitler sent the army to Rhineland. The Spanish Civil War began in July The war ended in with the Nationalist victory because of support by Italy and Germany. In March , Germany sent its army into Austria , known as the Anschluss , which had little reaction from European countries  since nearly all Austrians wanted to be part of Germany, Soon, Western Europe agreed to give Sudetenland , the part of Czechoslovakia that was mostly German, to Germany if Hitler promised to stop taking land. On September 3, Britain and France declared war on Germany.
They did not do much to help Poland but sent only a small French attack on Germany from the west. Germany then signed an agreement to work together with the Soviet Union. The Soviet Union forced the Baltic countries to allow it to keep Soviet soldiers in their countries. British soldiers were sent to the Continent, but there were no large battles fought between the two sides. The British and the French sent an army to disrupt the German occupation, but had to leave when Germany invaded France. On 10 May, Germany invaded France , Belgium, Holland, and Luxembourg and quickly defeated them by using tactics of massive force. Soon, France was divided into occupation zones. Some were directly controlled by Germany and Italy,  and the other was the zone of unoccupied Vichy France.
By June , the Soviet Union moved its soldiers into the Baltic states and took them,  followed by Bessarabia in Romania. Although there had been some collaboration between the Soviet Union and Germany earlier, that event made it serious. Germany began an air battle over Britain to prepare for a landing on the island ,  but the plan was finally canceled in September. The German Navy destroyed many British ships transporting goods in the Atlantic. The United States remained neutral but started to help the Allies. By helping to protect British ships in the Atlantic, the United States found itself fighting German ships by October but was not officially at war.
In September , Italy began to invade British-held Egypt. Meanwhile, Japan's progress in China was still not much, although the nationalist and communist Chinese began fighting each other again. During the summer, the Axis quickly captured Ukraine and the Baltic regions, which caused huge damage to the Soviets. Britain and the Soviet Union formed a military alliance in July. This marked the end of the blitzkrieg stage of the war. By December, the Soviet Red Army facing the Axis army had received more soldiers from the east since it no longer featd the Japanese. The Soviets began a counterattack and pushed the German army to the west. By November , the British counterattacked the Axis in North Africa and got all the landback that it had lost.
Japan could no longer take land because a large part of its navy was destroyed during the Battle of Midway. The fight at Guadalcanal began in September and involved many troops and ships from both sides. It ended with a Japanese defeat in early On the Eastern Front, the Axis defeated Soviet attacks during summer and began its own main offensive to southern Russia along Don and Volga Rivers in June to try to take over oil fields in Caucasus , which were critical to the Axis for fueling their war effort, and as well as a great steppe. Stalingrad now Volgograd was in the path of the Axis army, and the Soviets decided to defend the city. By November, the Germans had nearly taken Stalingrad , but the Soviets surrounded the Germans in the winter  After heavy losses, the German army was forced to surrender the city in February A new Allied offensive drove the Axis west across Libya a few months later,  just after the Anglo-American invasion of French North Africa forced it to join the Allies.
Many German soldiers were lost because of the Soviets' well-created defenses. The Soviets, instead og the Germans, then became the attacking force on the Eastern Front. On July 9, , affected by the earlier Soviet victories, the Western Allies landed on Sicily , which resulted in the arrest of Mussolini in the same month. In late , Japan conquered some islands in India and began an invasion of the mainland of India. The British Indian Army and other forces expelled it in early In early , the Soviet army drove off the German army from Leningrad  now Saint Petersburg and enede the longest and deadliest siege in history.
After that, the Soviets began a large counterattack. By May, the Soviets had retaken Crimea. With the attacks in Italy from September , the Allies succeeded in capturing Rome on June 4, and made the German forces fall back. The codename for the invasion was Operation Overlord. The successful invasion led to the defeat of the German forces in France. Paris was freed in August , and the Allies continued eastward while the German front collapsed.
Operation Market Garden was the combined aerial invasion of the Netherlands and was launched on September 17, The purpos was to seize a series of bridges that included a bridge in Arnhem , which spanned the Rhine River. The airborne invasion was called Market. The ground invasion, named Garden, reached the Rhine but could not take the bridge. The ariving Soviet troops caused uprisings against the German government in Eastern European countries, but they failed to succeed unless they were helped by the Soviets. The Soviets made Finland switch to the Allies. On December 16, , the Germans tried one last time to take the Western Front by attacking the Allies in Ardennes, Belgium , in a battle is known as the Battle of the Bulge.
It was the last major German attack of the war, and the Germans were not successful in their attack. In Italy, the Allies pushed forward while the Soviets attacked Berlin. Hitler committed suicide on April 30, , two days after Mussolini had been killed. German forces in Italy surrendered on April 29, The final battle in Europe ended in Italy, on May 11, In the Pacific, American forces arrived in the Philippines on June By April , American and Philippine forces had cleared many of the Japanese forces, but fighting continued in some parts of the Philippines until the end of the war.
The Allies wanted Japan to surrender without conditions, but Japan refused to do so. On August 8, , the Soviets entered the war against Japan and invaded Manchuria and quickly defeated the primary Imperial Japanese Army there. The surrender documents were formally signed on board the USS Missouri on September 2, , which ended the warthe war. The Allies managed to occupy Austria and Germany. Germany was divided into two. The Soviets controlled the east, and the Western Allies controlled the west. The Allies began denazification, removing Nazi ideas from public life in Germany,  and most high-ranking Nazis were captured and brought to a special court.
Germany lost a quarter of the land that it had in , mostly to Poland and the Soviet Union. The Soviets also took some parts of Poland    and Finland  as well as the three Baltic countries. The United Nations was formed on October 24,  to keep peace between countries in the world. In Asia , Japan was put under American occupation. In , Korea was divided into North Korea and South Korea , each claiming to be the legal representative of the Koreans, which led to the Korean War in In the Middle East , the Arabs' disagreed with the United Nations plan to create Israel , which marked the beginning of conflicts between the Arabs and Israel. After the war, decolonization took place in many European colonies.
In most cases, that happened peacefully, except in some countries, such as Indochina and Algeria. Economic recovery was different in many parts of the world, but in general, it was quite positive. The United States became richer than any other country and, by , it had taken over as the world's economy. The German,  Italian,   and French economies recovered. There is no exact total number of deaths because many of them were unrecorded. Many studies said that more than 60 million people died in the war, mostly civilians. Mostly, people died because they were sick , hungry to death , bombed, or the wrong ethnicity.
The Nazis selectyed many groups of people to be kille in what is known as known as The Holocaust. They killed Jews , Roma , Poles , Russians , homosexuals , and other groups. Around 7. There were reports that the Germans and Japanese tested biological weapons against civilians  and against prisoners-of-war. Although many Axis war crimes were brought to the first international court,  no Allied war crimes were. Other than the Holocaust, about 12 million people, mostly Eastern Europeans, were forced to work for the German economy. Both sides treated prisoners-of-war badly.
That was the case even for Soviet soldiers who survived and returned home. Japanese prisoner-of-war camps, many of which were used as labour camps, also caused many deaths. The death rate of Western prisoners was Between and , US Presiden Franklin Roosevel t signed an order that made Japanese Americans go to internment camps since he feared them helping an invasion. Some Germans and Italians were included as well. The Allies agreed that the Soviet Union could use prisoners-of-war and civilians for forced labor. Before the war in Europe, the Allies had a larger population and economy than the Axis.
The Allied economy and population compared with the Axis lessened with the early Axis victories. However, that was no longer the case after the United States and the Soviet Union joined the Allies in The Allies had a higher production level than the Axis because of more natural resources. Also, Germany and Japan did not plan for a long war and even had no ability to do so. As men went off to fight, women took over many of the jobs that they left behind. At factories, women were employed to make bombs, guns, aircraft, and other equipment. In Britain, thousands of women were sent to work on farms as part of the Land Army.
Others formed the Women's Royal Naval Service to help with building and repairing ships. By , some weapons were being made almost entirely by women. In the beginning, women were rarely used in the labor forces in Germany and Japan. In Britain, women also worked in gathering intelligence at Bletchley Park and other places. The mass evacuation of children also had a major impact on the lives of mothers during the war years. Germany had two different ideas of how it would occupy countries. The Nazis used their racial policy and murdered a lot of people they thought non-human. The Resistance, the group of people secretly fighting Germany, could not harm the Germany much until In Asia, Japan claimed to free colonized Asian countries from European colonial powers.
The war brought new methods for future wars. The air forces improved greatly in fields such as air transport,  strategic bombing to use bombs to destroy industry and morale ,  radar , and weapons for destroying aircraft. Jet aircraft were developed and were used worldwide in air forces. At sea, the war focused on using aircraft carriers and submarines. Aircraft carriers soon replaced battleships ,    mainly for being cheaper. The British improved weapons for destroying submarines, such as sonar , while the Germans improved submarine tactics. The style of war on the land had changed from World War I to be more moveable. Tanks , which had been used to support infantry , changed to being primary weapons. At the start of the war, most commanders thought that using better tanks was the best way to fight enemy tanks.
The German idea to avoid letting tanks fight each other meant tanks facing tanks rarely happened. That was a successful tactic in Poland and France. Vehicles became more used in the war, infantry remained the main part of the army,  and most were equipped like in World War I. Submachine guns became widely used, especially in cities and jungles. Other developments included better encryption for secret messages, such as the German Enigma. Another feature of military intelligence was the use of deception , especially by the Allies. Others include the first programmable computers , modern missiles and rockets , and the atomic bombs. Most authorities now agree that of the 30 million Soviets who bore arms, there were Deaths among civilians during this war, many of which resulted from famine and internal purges, such as in China and the Soviet Union, were colossal but less well documented than those by the fighting forces.
Although the figures are the best available from authoritative sources and present a broad picture of the scale of civilian losses, the precise numbers will never be known. From Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Allied victory. Joseph Stalin Franklin D. Roosevelt Winston Churchill Chiang Kai-shek. Adolf Hitler Hirohito Benito Mussolini. Campaigns of World War II. Operation Barbarossa to July 9, American and Soviet soldiers meeting east of the Elbe river, Germany 25 April Colonies around the world in However, many countries in Asia and Africa would become free later.
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