Why Doesnt America Ban Guns

Friday, March 25, 2022 6:58:59 AM

Why Doesnt America Ban Guns

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That doesn't seem high enough to me. TaylorAlexander 45 days ago [—]. It does make some sense that movies which have been available for three years could have more downloads than movies which have been available for one year. I didn't think of this at all. This throws the tenuous conclusions I was drawing completely out the window. A friend who torrents these things just checked for me and saw well over a , 'snatches' for that Avengers flick on just one private torrent tracker. So yeah, not 2, Think millions.

Additionally, I guess there are also many people, myself included, who download stuff again, but I don't use torrents, as I have indeed been burned in the past by that. I now use forums that link to encrypted Mega accounts or similar. This makes far more sense, I wonder why their numbers are so bad. AnonHP 45 days ago [—]. There are many private trackers that are closed to the outside world and have tens of thousands of members, each of whom may not only download from the peers within that private tracker, but also share the downloaded content with others. Yeah but if most people have services - I have three - then the most popular movies for that year will be on all the services almost.

Endgame has been on all my services at some point over the last couple years. Probably also the people who are most likely to want to watch Endgame have services. By services you mean, Netflix, Hulu and similar right? Not plex, or the various illegal streaming sites? I don't torrent when I pirate anymore or use usenet. Torrent stats might be going down because there are easier alternatives. Do you mean the common streaming sites that are all over the place now? Or some other better method? Easier alternatives such as? AussieWog93 45 days ago [—]. Specifically for the example of Australians watching pirate rips of television programs, the percentage of us doing it dropped like a brick after Netflix launched here back in and has climbed back slightly since the fragmentation occurred.

It's nothing like the old days where we had to wait several weeks to watch Game of Thrones legally, though. BigJono 45 days ago [—]. My parents asked me to help them get into streaming a few months ago after they got a new iPad. So I bought them a Chromecast, taught them how to switch the input source between the Chromecast and Cable on their TV, which they were cool with. Then I tried to set them up on the iPad. There was about specific shows they wanted to watch, what I found was that they were literally spread across more than 5 services, with one show each. Not a single one of them had 2 of the shows they wanted to watch.

They were already set up with Foxtel and had been using it for a couple of years, they watched shows on it regularly and knew how to do everything up to hitting the 'cast' button. So I set them up with the other services, bummed an Amazon account off a sibling, signed them up to the 3 or 4 free services we have in Australia, think I subbed to one other one or something too. I can't even remember what they all were there was so many. I put the icons all in the same place on their home screen so they knew those apps were all the streaming ones etc etc.

I logged into a few of the accounts a week or so ago and they haven't watched a single thing. Not even on the Foxtel, which they were already using, and now they've stopped using it. It seems to me like they've just hit a wall of complexity and thrown their hands up and said fuck the whole thing. And you know what? I'm right there with them. Half way through the set up, trying to do the right thing, I was an inch away from throwing my hands up and saying fuck the whole thing as well.

It would be far easier for everyone involved if I just brought a hard drive with new shows around for them every few months. There was another thread here yesterday where some bloke was going on about how he couldn't understand why people wouldn't just spin up a linux box or something instead of using Discord. Well, this is it. It took my parents months to get used to using one app, and adding something as simple as another couple of apps to the mix has turned them off the technology entirely.

When you introduce anything other than the absolute most simple UX, you risk losing part of your market entirely. You're not building stuff for other software engineers or other TV network execs or whatever your job title is. Everyone trying to carve out their own piece of the pie is just smashing the pie to bits for everyone else. When it was just Netflix, piracy was almost dead. Now, it's going to come back, unless content distributors can find some way to work together. That goes for music, TV and games. All 3 ecosystems are running into the exact same problem.

After my sister died, my brother in law was in a deep hole. I wanted to cheer him up somehow, and so I ended up giving him a 2TB hard disk connected to an old laptop. Then plugged a gen 1 Chromecast into his TV, and installed Plex onto an old tablet. He said it was a life saver. It helped get him through a really bad winter. I can't even think of a way I could have given him that content "legally". Some of it was great but obscure stuff ripped off DVDs that I bought over years. It's not just the complexity of multiple apps and devices - some content just isn't there.

Like a shitload of really decent TV series and movies from the 60s onward. I do this for my family. It's been a smashing hit and they all love it. We all loved Netflix when it came out and paused doing this for a while, but it wasn't long until the fragmentation and geoblocking led to more requests for certain shows popping up again, and now we all pretty much got rid of all our streaming services and are back to the HDDs. They need to swallow their pride and realise there needs to be a way to have one interface that shows you all the content you can access from the subset of services you subscribe to, in a searchable way.

My Netflix shows, Prime shows and Foxtel shows should show up side-by-side in the interface. I'm right there with you. I'm increasingly frustrated by the experience of using my various streaming apps. I don't even mind having to bounce between different apps for different content. One of the most annoying scenarios I seem to find myself in all too frequently is trying to get to the episode list for a series. The assumption that most of my services make is that when I click on the series card in the list of shows, the thing I want is to automatically be taken to where I left off.

This is fine when it works although it's a big damn assumption that the app correctly preserved where I left off, and even when it does that often dumps me into the credits for the episode I finished last night. But when I want to see the episode list, I feel like I just have to flail about and curse at the TV until I stumble upon the right sequence of buttons to get to what I want. That's not even to mention the incredibly disheartening recent changes to the home screen of my Shield Android TV, where half the home screen is now taken up with ads for programs I will never watch on services I don't even use. I also had a nice Plex setup at one point. Maybe one of these days I'll get off my ass and heed the call of the open seas.

I don't have a numerical proof based on numbers myself either, but myself and everyone in my circles has increased. It's harder to study now that torrents aren't the only alternative. University libraries. Mindwipe 46 days ago [—]. There was a little upkick at the start of the pandemic according to Sandvine, but Sandvine's methodology is not watertight and lots of people staying at home with not much to do seems a more likely culprit than service fragmentation. Then I noticed Netflix had fewer and fewer movies I was interested in, and just went back to sailing the high seas. Yea, it's their Achilles heel. You can throw money at directors, and actors, but there are just so many great movies, and most were made by hollywood years ago.

The owners of those great films, started their own streaming service. If I am expected to shuffle around multiple streaming subscriptions, and pay for them individually, it is not that different from the cable TV model that these guys took on against. Sailing the high seas indeed! It is one of the biggest reasons to use torrents. You see, this is the only non-fragmented service that has all media content! Now, of only there was a way to have a moderated search for all content on all trackers Maybe there is one already, and its just that i don't know it? Pirate Bay? PirateBay became a haven for false torrents infested by malware. I'm ta lking about rutracker.

Also, now it is probably better than ever didn't watch anything for quite a while, so it's a guess , because films are currently released on VOD concurrently with premieres in theatres, and that means that good quality content appears immediately, and not after theatrical window. Netflix seems like a split brained company. Most of its original movies are terrible, and are in sharp contrast to many of the Netflix original series which are very good.

It seems like there isn't a widely available service to just bundle everything and serve what you want? Anyone kmow is that a cost restriction or do the companies disallow it? Romulus 46 days ago [—]. I collect for two reasons: 1. Archiving 2. Most of the "good" vintage games carry ridiculous prices. Even if we assume 1 million were destroyed, that's still 9 million copies floating about. It's ridiculous that games like super smash bros are the same price whether you buy them new on a switch or used for a 25 year old n No clue why nintendo bothers ending production runs on games when they know people still buy sell and play 30 year old titles.

They could just license the reruns to someone else to produce the cartriges and disks and make money hand over fist. It always seems like nintendo has blinders on and self sabotages with stuff like this all the time nintendo online being a huge fail compared to something like xbox live which has been around for almost 20 years now. In my opinion they could easily overtake xbox and playstation marketshare just by being smarter with their IP and taking back this market that is currently totally owned by people on ebay and craigslist because of nintendo's short sightedness with their production runs.

For that matter - why not sell Ncompatible consoles? You could make them incredibly cheaply now, and they're definitely still in demand. Are they scared of cannibalizing their "high end"? Why do you think they would be cheap? Many of the relevant chips have been out of production for decades. Sure you can emulate a lot on a logic device like an FPGA, but those are still expensive compared to a microprocessor, and your engineering costs will go up. Any sort of emulation will have slight quirks- timing changes, mildly perceptible audio frequency shifts, etc.

And for what, a few thousands units of sales? A select few stick with vintage hardware, which is not expensive. TillE 45 days ago [—]. You're Nintendo, you have all the original specs, you can literally make an exact clone on an FPGA or whatever's cheapest. I don't disagree that the market is small, though. But Nintendo does have a chronic problem of under-manufacturing desirable hardware. Like, if you want a SNES Classic good emulator, fantastic controllers , you'll have to pay x the original price. Nintendo could do another run of them every year for basically no effort, and they just For the SNES classic, the limit on their production runs is probably the licensing of third-party content.

They put blinders and only license titles up to a certain amount. If you mean the Nintendo solution I think the [system] Mini trend has finally died out for good outside of a handfull of pathetic outliers like Amiga mini. At any rate Nintendo seems to prefer to release these things on their existing consoles, as emulated roms, as it's cheaper anyway. If you mean third party solutions I think there is at least one project that aims to be compatible with various original cartridges but its name eludes me at the moment.

But yeah, Nintendo could have done this years ago had they wanted to. Aren't they going to soon. I guess they just want people to buy newer consoles and games, which make sense for them. I don't think selling smash bros 64 again will hurt their nintendo switch sales very much. It wasn't nearly as popular as their current games. Loved it after having played TTYD. Game prices are part rarity, part demand. Plus even if millions of copies were sold the majority might not be English versions which are often most popular.

US copies sold more like , and collectors outside the US are interested as well since English is much more of a common 1st or 2nd language than Japanese. Apparently that game was a limited run though. Yep, I recently bought Dragon Warrior 1, 2, and 3. It also lets you set hot keys and toggle turbo mode. These days a sealed copy of DW4 graded at 7. As a consumer of these things, I've thought many times how easy it would be for someone to just print off "original boxes and content" for these old games, and sell them as if they were mint.

As someone who wants this kind of thing As long as you tell us it's a replica, and it's high quality - everyone wins. Once enough time passes, replicas and forgeries all just become history. It's almost an hour long piece of effectively investigative journalism by someone in the speed running and thus vintage gaming community. Jetrel 45 days ago [—]. The storage medium changed so much, but the functional shipped object was still "a chunk of read-only memory containing the probably sole version of a game that got shipped to a market". I too tend to think of ROMs as strictly images of non-volatile chips , alone, but it's interesting that when we're in computer emulation territory, it's really only the size that's different; a CD iso feeds into a PS emulator pretty much the same way a rom file feels into a SNES emulator - it's just a document.

It's funny how the wheel goes round and round. Analyst Ben Evans frequently refers to cycle of bundling and unbundling of produtcts in tech. Once the market becomes completely fragmented, a new service offering to bundle it back up will inevitably come along. Why is piracy of games for a year-old console a problem? Is anyone still selling new games for those consoles? Because copyright holders like the idea of reselling the same games to you hundreds of times. Nintendo resells the exact same games to people every time they launch a console.

Companies create low effort compilations all the time. You'd think they'd make their money and move on to new creations. You make something, it's successful, you make your money for 5 years or so and then it's public domain. You'd have to make new stuff to make more money. Copyright holders feel entitled to extract value out of their "property" essentially forever. It's the ultimate in rent seeking. The copyright issue is what sucks most. For the US the first implementation of copyright allowed max 28 years. If anything, copyright should be shorter than 28 years.

Not longer. I love the original The Matrix movie. But it has had it's day in the sun, earned money and become "old news" at least 10 years ago. In a "free market" sense, 12 years is a long time to have a monopoly on IP. The rightsholder wants to be able to sell the game to you again on a new platform to keep collecting revenue off it. If that's the motivation, it's pretty misguided, since it is a completely different motivation to buy.

I buy or pirate if I can't the old games for nostalgia fun, not so much for the gameplay or graphics. They want to have the option to resell you the exact same game emulated on the new systems too, see Wii Virtual Console I think it was called, and NES classic system, all of those. People getting ROMs to play on another device doesn't stop them from doing that any more than the original systems and game carts stop them. Yes actually. For a while Square Enix was selling PS1 versions of FF games too although they have seemed to have stopped in the last few years. Can confirm, I got a brand new still-shrink-wrapped copy of FFIX for my birthday just a few years ago. Oh I see, that's a surprise for me heh. Netflix is getting into games for a reason.

It's unclear if they only play to make new ones or also license old ones. Not quite old ROMs, but gog. That's basically the old PC computer equivalent of what I believe Nintendo does by shipping the emulator with the ROM when you buy it through the Virtual Console so it runs as a whole. I am abandonware collector of sorts, and one thing I liked is how all major abandonware site happily link to GOG. GOG has been earning a lot of my praise recently for not only hosting binaries - but actually putting labour into making sure their games run on modern systems. This is particularly important for games from the era of weird sound cards that can't render audio quite right without a vintage soundblaster - but also goes for games that were simply designed with DOS expectations in place.

Back in the day I was a big fan of an SSI game called Imperialism - this game pretty much refuses to run on modern software - it needs DOSBox to run smoothly and even then it does custom cursor stuff that tends to screw up very obviously on modern systems - the GOG version of the game runs smooth like butter. Why would I ever pirate a copy of Imperialism and spend a day actually getting it set up to run sorta decently on my machine - when I can grab it off GOG for 1. GOG is great and reasonably priced. I never pirate what I can find on GOG. They sell old games, e.

That doesn't entitle me to run the game on a much better emulator with RetroArch or apply fun ROM hacks on it. Yes it does. It literally installs raw ROM files that can be opened in any Mega Drive Emulator directly into your steamapps directory. But does it give me the right? AussieWog93 44 days ago [—]. IANAL, but yes. If you don't copy something, copyright is not invoked. In many jurisdictions AU, UK , it would be legal to copy them to another device you own, such as a hacked PSP, under the "format shifting" exemptions.

It doesn't stop you either. Licensing hell. TheRealDunkirk 45 days ago [—]. Uh, you can get them for free. Great games. Recently - well a year ago - played through them with a friend coop. I am sure it is, but I figure if anyone can crack that nut, it's Valve. You can go into the folders where they are installed and grab them to use in a different emulator. They'll have to compete with SuperStonk GameStop Seems like more of a benefit than a problem. Current games that need a server side will die off this decade with no chance of being played ever again. A good thing overall, tbf. The other thing is that a lot of games from 20 years ago can't even be bought anymore from the original source.

You can't buy it used. The console and games are no longer sold. The producers have made all of the profit that they would make, on the original sale. Its the same reason why people compromise for privacy and use main stream products like google maps. Move fast, break things, but I guess it matters which things. The only thing that prevents this from existing is the licensing nightmare of trying to track down who still owns the rights to those old ROMs. So many defunct companies and cases where even the people who worked on it have no idea who currently owns the rights.

Had we kept the 28 year copyright duration from almost all ROM images would be in the Public Domain now. And some of the licensing conflicts are because of an alliance that existed and made sense in say and today seems like inexplicable nonsense. For example indie creator studio makes video game for the PS1. It's a huge hit, they go on to make other popular games, and one day Microsoft buys them, morphs them into an in-house team. And then one day you realise you're arguing that, Microsoft now the owner of the license should release this Sony Playstation game.

Not going to happen. When this stuff happens for individual humans, often even if the money doesn't mean anything to one person who is an obstacle, it does mean something to their co-creators and they'll do it for that. For example it would be possible for Alan Moore to have blocked a lot of stuff that uses his work, from the V for Vendetta movie which lots of people liked but I felt missed the whole point to the re-issues of Miracleman, but while Alan doesn't care about money, the artists on that work do, and him blocking it would hurt them.

Corporations don't care though. If they can inconvenience a modern competitor by snuffing out an important cultural artefact that is exactly what they'll do. I'd actually advocate outright abolition of copyright. The associated moral rights have some place, but copyright is almost entirely a means for corporations to try to control culture for their own profit and we don't need it. But 28 years is a more acceptable middle ground I guess.

Had to go check my actual copies of the books. There should be a rule that if an IP was broadly commercialized at any point eg. It's difficult in some cases but demand is absolutely the main driver. Much like Netflix, the reality is that people aren't actually very interested in old shows apart from a handful of super famous perennials which are already available anyway. They say they are in surveys, but consumer behaviour does not back that up. They just use newer content in practice. There is always interest in old shows, but not enough to deal with the licensing issues.

You could have much wider libraries if the licensing was less of a nightmare. Conveniently enough, actual public libraries do resolve a lot of issues for "older content". But they don't do computer games generally. Until then, archive. That one sounds hilarious. I didn't know how to filter out the romhacks, if you scroll down the majority of the collection is original games. The issue is that the VG industry is pretty far behind in this respect, not that there's a lack of demand.

The demand is there, it's just a question of having a convenient enough package. I think Nintendo in particular revels in the scarcity. They value their IP above all else, and they know that's what their customers value, and they want to squeeze it for every last drop of fan loyalty they can. See the artificially limited-time digital! Sony kinda wrote the book on artificial scarcity with the first playstations I can see it now. Most ROMs would be available, but Nintendo would be notably absent from any of the platforms and only allow their ROMs to be streamed from their own service. Oh, I know, but in the theoretical world where there's a Netflix like subscription, I would assume that means a lot of different IP was also gathered there, like Sega, Atari, older Playstation and Xbox titles, etc.

There's not a lot of incentive for some of those groups to come together, but I imagine even if most could be assembled, Nintendo would be particularly resistant. GameTap had a Decent collection of Sega consoles and arcade titles back in the day, though it unfortunately never got off the ground. CobrastanJorji 46 days ago [—]. I worked on GameTap! Old ROM websites at the time had these click-through agreements that would say things like "you may only download these ROMs if you have explicit, written permission from the publisher" and I may be on of the only living people who've clicked one of those "I agree" links in good faith. Technically, GameTap had some really neat little features.

For example, it would track your high score for most emulated games, and for really old games where the score would rollover to zero, it noticed that and would let you see your effective grand total score. So there would be a global Galaga leaderboard that could happily go into the millions. Regarding the success of the service, Gametap was live for a few years. It totally had its shot. GameTap was regularly advertised on TV. They did a few high profile things like buying some failed MMOs and keeping the servers running for all GameTap subscribers.

At the end, I think it turned out that the folks who get really excited about playing ColecoVision games are the same folks who are very comfortable downloading ROMs. Reading back I definitely come off a bit too harsh on gametap - It was a good service from the start. I think it may just have been ahead of it's time in terms of model in the era of battlepasses, paid online and gamepass, as well as monthly paid streaming services in general. CobrastanJorji 45 days ago [—].

It's true. Here's a fun technical secret about GameTap. Those would usually have crack intros it was the birth of the demoscene! Ultimately we cheated. We just launched the game by loading a save state just past the crack intro. Probably not. Most cartridge games outside of first party titles are mired in a confusing mess of IP ownership. Consider what happens when the developer doesn't exist anymore, the publisher was acquired, the brand for the franchise is owned by one company, and the code for the original game is owned by a different company, which has no interest in making games.

I doubt that's going to happen any time soon. Nintendo would rather publish its old games on its own store. Ditto for Microsoft and Sony. The older consoles now usually have a collection of ports for old games sold on the newer platforms, though those don't always behave true to the original platforms without special hardware. Well there is BitTorrent and filesharing but they made it illegal. It's never been more legal than it is today - it's not like in KaZaA and Morpheus were bastions of legal activity. It was sort of a loophole but it was completely legal.

Those were the days. Then suddenly the highest court disallowed it. Guess what, we still pay the copy tax. Clarification: The copy tax was meant to compensate copyright owners for consumers making copies for private use of purchased media. It was widely interpreted as to allow downloading from the internet as well even from pirated sources. Many can easily make more than min wage, and in certain niches you probably don't even have to be 'conventionally beautiful' sorry to use this term, but it's important I think to make a living or solid portion of a living on there.

And she's not doing "porn" or even posting fully nude photos. There are a lot of people making a living or at least significantly boosting their income from this model, and they don't have to leave the house to do it. Strom 45 days ago [—]. The top earners on OnlyFans make a lot of money indeed. There was recently a great interview with Amouranth [1] where she talked about her work. Interestingly she doesn't think that this type of top-heavy earnings situation will be sustainable, that the revenue will be more evenly distributed in the future. Even so, she considers her biggest competition to not be up-and-coming people, but instead existing influencers who might bring their audience to OnlyFans.

Definitely not a common success story, but it's pretty interesting how it is possible to have insane success when applying well-reasoned growth strategies and keeping up the grind. OF is significantly different from other social media in that the adult market has a lot of really weird market factors that make even new market participants able to access significant revenue.

Most OF people aren't making 10 million, but it's better to compare OF to patreon where most small users are still pulling in a few hundred dollars a month at least - and that's a pretty significant amount if you've graduated from school into a pandemic market. I also wonder if OF customers prefer paying girls who have less fans. So market forces therefore would drive a long tail. Sohcahtoa82 46 days ago [—]. Twitch is certainly that way as well. The median viewer count is likely single digits. Though I can say with considerable certainty that a lot of wannabe Twitch streamers think that being a streamer just means having people watch you play a game, which may be true for story-driven games that don't get a lot of viewers, since it creates a more movie-like experience, and may be true for highly-competitive games where you can watch someone make amazing plays.

But for the rest, you need to have the charisma and creativity to create entertaining commentary and audience interaction. Nobody wants to watch an average Joe play World of Warcraft. In the Justin. Anther 45 days ago [—]. I was proud of my JTV channel. I actually used to vlog and chat to people. They regularly featured me too. She had been on the site already, the only reason I know the amount made during that time is she did it as a fundraiser and donated it all to a non-profit. I'm sure it's a distribution with a long tail, but I think it's probably easier to have a side gig on OF provide you with a little supplemental income rather than Etsy.

SilverRed 45 days ago [—]. I'd say the average user puts in next to no effort though. I'd be more interested in the average profit per hour spent working on the platform. It's super toxic for society since it's literally "winner takes all". In Germany, all Craftsmen are just laughing. Tiler, Carpenter, electrician, etc.. The Salary potential is just increasing. Not Germany, but similar situation in Belgium: Skilled crafts here can generate a more money in the first years of a career than what you make with a university degree desk job. One factor is that you can get into the labor force much earlier, don't neglect that years head start when saving for your first house loan.

After that, it depends if you're doing the extra hours, weekend and night shifts. After that the masters degree jobs get the advantage. The craftsmen either they worked their way into a more supervising role or are not able or willing to do the lucrative labor hours. The decline in crafts like baker or butcher is attributed to the long and weird hours, more than the pay. There are simply not enough to replace the. Your comment was cut off at the end, mate. Right you are!

Craftsmen who are willing to do a small job for me are so hard to find right now, they're busy enough NONE of them in my area need the business. Every quote I get is either overblown "to make it worth my time", or I simply get declined. Ontario, Canada. AngryData 45 days ago [—]. Another person in the same boat believes that a lot of people are fixing up homes to sell while the market is hot. In my experience, having been a homeowner in Alberta first, then Ontario second - it's similar to software development Most tradespeople prefer to work on new builds, large amounts of stable work, without the hastle of renovating existing structures and all of the hidden issues that are quickly exposed once the surface has been taken away.

Same goes for tradespeople. Ontario and BC have extremely hot housing markets and the demand is off the charts - a lot of tilers and plumbers in BC get sucked into reno contracting companies and simply have enough work to keep them busy for years. I don't think there was an exodus to Alberta - tradesfolk bring in serious cash in Canada so they can definitely afford to live in hot areas I'd be more curious if it was actually early retirement that was driving things with tradesfolk building up enough of a nest egg that they can afford to retire early.

Moving back for a job is trivial when the alternative is being unemployed. Not if you need to buy a car, relocate, or find some child care, for example. It took me several months to find a general contractor to just give me an estimate for the repairs and he charged quite a lot for just that. I had to have my HVAC system repaired and I got to talking to the guy who was working on it and during the course of our conversation we started talking about pay If you don't have your own shop at 40 you are pretty much screwed.

In Australia craftsmen called "tradies" are booking 18 months out, will only work on the things they want to i. Most of them still prefer to surf than work! You have to wonder though, is this because of a genuine gap in the market where people are yet to realize there is money to be made, or is there something else that these stories are leaving out. Is everyone in the industry making this much money? If you joined the industry today, how long would it take to start making good money? You have to do a 4 year apprenticeship, during which time you won't make great money.

Have been for 20 years. Right so it seems somewhat similar to the profits you can make programming. Doesn't seem like a crazy get rich quick scheme, just years of hard work paying off. Pretty much. There's probably also an "in crowd" aspect to it as well. In Germany there must be an undersupply of these laborers. Come to California and you will find electricians with years of experience, all sorts of craftsman, woodworkers, tilers, roofers, hvac specialists, approaching you with your three cans of paint and asking you for work in the home depot parking lot. Maybe that's just what happens though when you get your working experience in another country like Mexico or El Salvador and these trades in the U.

Johnny 45 days ago [—]. The licensing process helps make sure that the electrician that has 10 years of experience in El Salvador understands American wiring codes and practices before he does something that'll burn your house down. For sure there are common skills that all electricians share regardless of country, but there are still significant differences between countries, like in the UK ring circuits are common, but are against code in the USA.

Like when I found that my house had several MWBC's, but on one of them, the previous owner or someone he hired had replaced the tied-handle breakers with untied breakers, which leads to a very unsafe situation another common mistake with MWBC's is moving breakers around and putting the hots on the same hot leg, which can lead to an overloaded neutral. Or worse, when I mapped out my outlets and found that the owner had put a 30A breaker on the 12 gauge wire leading to the garage outlets, presumably he was tripping the code compliant 20A breaker and "solved" that with a bigger breaker. What is ironic about your examples is that you had all these problems with unlicensed work in a place where licensing is still required. So whats the point of the license even if so much work is done that isn't licensed?

People who will cheap out will cheap out no matter what the laws say, and people who pay for good work will continue to pay for good work. In my jurisdiction, minor electrical work can be done by the homeowner as long as it's a single family home. I think technically even major electrical word can be done by the homeowner as long as it's inspected and signed off, though it's possible that the inspector will require electrician signoff first.

But if a guy who is a master electrician in El Salvador can sell himself as an electrician here, then a homeowner may trust him to do major electrical work "Permits? Naa, you don't need permits for this, that'll just make it more expensive. Trust me! I'm an Electrican and I've been doing this work for 20 years back home". Good luck with the insurance claim after the house burns down. TedDoesntTalk 45 days ago [—].

Maybe that's just what happens though Where in live in the US, the housing market is exploding. It is impossible to find these workers, licensed or not. I live where the median home is k and there is still no shortage of handymen and general contractor labor here if you are willing to pay for work under the table. It's an interesting dynamic. California has the slowest housing starts of any major state in the country. That same carpenter would have his pick of job sites in Florida.

Comparing jobs solely based on income is a nonsense comparison. The two class of jobs are so different. Scalability, physicality, career path, longevity etc all comes into picture. The discussion has been going around in cycles for many years. What I wanted to point was that talking about "employability", people don't have to go to a university to get a degree and then try to find a job. There are other great ways to make enough money to don't have to end on OnlyFans. A lot of places around the world have been in lockdowns that have made manual labour difficult, while doing sex work from home has been made much easier.

Trades are solid career choices but it's hard work and you expire at about the same rate as a software dev. So sick of seeing these wildly inflated numbers, they increase after every post I'm sure. Most of us here who are software devs are not earning close to k, stop using a few SF salaries as the baseline for the rest of us. It is really annoying. Ok, so let's not use inflated Numbers for the trades either. There are also nearly 5x the number of Developer jobs then carpenters. Then when we look at other technology jobs, PM, IT, etc, the story is similar to developers, high median salary with a multiple of jobs available over the trades.

User23 45 days ago [—]. The big upside of the trades is that after working for journeyman wages for a while, learning the job, and establishing a reputation, it becomes possible to own your own business, either by founding or buying out a retiring boomer, of which there are many. At that point your earning potential skyrockets into the millions. It just isn't applicable to the average employee in the given profession. I'm also extremely skeptical that yearly profit potential is in the millions for trade businesses except in extremely rare cases. So financing is often within reach. Another example is trucking. Plenty of trucking businesses were built by a lone operator rolling profits into more trucks and hiring drivers. If you start selling millions in contracts, then are really doing trades any more?

You are a business manager and you need business management skills. Many people go into trades specifically to avoid that kind of life, they could have gotten a business degree instead if that is what they wanted. The SF saleries are inflated BS because they are insanely high even compared to one of the most expensive countries in the world. Yep officially. Unofficially they milk the black market. Sorry, but without some sort of source, I am skeptical, but also acknowledge that different markets and economies will reward labor in different ways.

The fundamental problem is that while yes, there are people who make good money in the trades, on average, it simply isn't true, as opposed to being a software engineer, where the average employee is compensated quite well. She describes it as a bimodal distribution. One smaller group of people with trades are willing to work anywhere whenever. They work in fly-in camps with limited work seasons and practically unlimited overtime. The other larger group goes home after work and their overtime is limited to nonexistent. I actually wouldn't be surprised to find that most labor markets are bi-modal but certainly not all. Which is why I used median wage and not average wage, because the median is very likely to grab the common tradespersons compensation experience whereas the average is likely to be skewed high by the upper distribution group.

Sfba is one of the most expensive areas. The trades people I know are booked out months. Next time a plumber stops by to fix your water heater, have a chat with them. Some of the ones I've talked to live in very nice custom built luxury homes that they designed themselves. Sure but now you're talking about an above median plumber in an above median col area. You can get that as a new grad. The two major employers in Seattle Amazon and Microsoft aren't paying K to new grads. Their packages are closer to K starting. And last time I checked those packages had serious compensation cliffs after the first few years! Software developer compensation is seriously bi-modal, most developers even in big cities are working at a fraction of FAANG pay, doing routine maintenance work.

Ok but the person you are replying to literally just went with average to avoid rare geographic salaries. It really puts in context how software development isn't a particularly good career, depressingly. The money may be approximately comparable outliers in both camps excepted but all the trade people I know that have established themselves have very flexible work schedule. They have all the demand they can take so when they want to work 60 hours weeks they do. But since work is per job, when they want to work a few hours a week or take time off, that's also possible without repercussions.

Oh and "unlimited vacation" aka don't dare take vacation ever. Tradepeople also don't have standups or agile soulcrushing BS and their experience is respected. I realize it's rather irrational but I personally don't think I could stomach the non-salaried lifestyle. A day of vacation is a day's wages lost. I'm sure it's something you learn to live with but I appreciate that the cost of taking time off is quite abstract for me. AuryGlenz 45 days ago [—]. I feel the same way - even a well paid but not mentally stimulating job would suck. Getting challenges on the job is a requirement for a good job.

I feel like you may be suffering from the grass is greener on the other side. First, work schedule. Keep in mind that, as another commenter pointed out, tradespeople often go through booms and busts, just like any other profession. The difference is that with tradespeople its a lot more obvious, since they still on a job for a few weeks, rather than a few years. On the boom, the tradespeople get a better deal out of it, because they get more work, whereas office workers of course only have the one job. In the busts, the office workers come out better, as the tradespeople have less work, whereas the office workers remain the same as they were in the boom.

Next, hours and vacation. I may be an outliner here, but my hours are the standard and I get a fixed 30 days vacation a year, and flexible working including working from home. Again, its only more noticeable in office jobs because your there for a long time, whereas a bad client will only be a problem for a number of weeks though potentially more if they hold off on paying. While we're at it, the same could be said of "their experience is respected". That's based on your employer, not your job. Finally, standups, agile and office politics assuming thats what you meant by BS. Its true, tradespeople don't need to suffer with that, but they do need to suffer through a hell of a lot of health and safety precautions and government red tape.

Of course you can get some cowboys who don't bother with that, but that seems no different than the programming teams that don't do standups, agile or office politics apart from the fact that one team is less likely to kill people. I would also mention the physical health issues that it can cause, but programmers get a similar thing through sitting for so long and you graciously didn't mention that. I don't think being a tradey is a bad job, not at all. Its just not perfect, and like any job has its pros and cons. I too have fantasised about going into that line of work, but I imagine if I did, I'd end up fantasizing sitting in a comfy chair all day building software. As I said, the grass is always greener on the other side. I've never worked 60 hours.

I've worked two full time jobs and have done 60h for periods. I would not recommend it. FooBarBizBazz 45 days ago [—]. If you're in the US, don't be annoyed with these numbers; learn from them. You should line up several interviews all in the same week and play the offers against one another. That highest number then sets a floor that everyone else will need to rise to as you negotiate. Politely ignore claims that offers will explode; they won't. You can actually do it. Especially if you're carefully selecting job opportunities that line up well with skill growth. Ancapistani 46 days ago [—]. People do that with every job it seems. It might have been true years ago and even then, i am a bit skeptical of that lower boundary of 5 years , but it is far from the truth in Literally interviewed with a small startup around 20 people total headcount less than a week ago.

And I am not even a senior level or anything like that. Technically the company is in NYC, but the position is fully remote, which makes it even more lucrative for people who want to live in cheap COL states no salary adjustment, which works out great for this scenario. They are not inflated numbers they are what you can get working for a set of top companies with deep pockets competing over the same talent. It varies but k is entry level comp pretty much anywhere they hire in the United States [0]. Your skills have the most market value their. Well I'm obviously in the wrong market then!

There's very few opportunities for salary increases unless I start looking for remote work outside of the state or I opt to move into a management role. Seriously consider remote then. You could easily pull in double that working remotely for a west coast tech company. This is very true, but you hear the same thing from craftsmen. Not saying I disagree, but yeh, its not unique to software dev it seems. I only have 1 YOE and I'll say the numbers sound right. A friend with 2 YOE got 2 K offers. These numbers are all for remote roles for SV-based companies. You can also check salary on levels. Side note - fan of your username. What languages do you use? Is easily doable have 2 k jobs without burnout. Do you really spend 8 hours coding each day?

In Germany Europe? Im in the late stages of my career and after owning my home for 15 years my mortgage is far less than rents in my area, my salary has gone up a ton over the years, and my house has appreciated a ton. If you are a dev early in your career and in a big city, stick it out. Get into a big company that gives you stock options that are worth something, but a house when you can, and start working to max out your k.

In the slave states , the militia was available for military operations, but its biggest function was to police the slaves. Bogus , Professor of Law of the Roger Williams University Law School in Rhode Island, [] the Second Amendment was written to assure the Southern states that Congress would not undermine the slave system by using its newly acquired constitutional authority over the militia to disarm the state militia and thereby destroy the South's principal instrument of slave control.

The militia remained the principal means of protecting the social order and preserving white control over an enormous black population. Anything that might weaken this system presented the gravest of threats. This preoccupation is clearly expressed in [] by the slaveholder Patrick Henry :. If the country be invaded, a state may go to war, but cannot suppress insurrections [under this new Constitution]. If there should happen an insurrection of slaves, the country cannot be said to be invaded. They cannot, therefore, suppress it without the interposition of Congress Congress, and Congress only [under this new Constitution; addition not mentioned in source], can call forth the militia. Therefore, Bogus argues, in a compromise with the slave states, and to reassure Patrick Henry, George Mason and other slaveholders that they would be able to keep their slave control militias independent of the federal government, James Madison also slave owner redrafted the Second Amendment into its current form "for the specific purpose of assuring the Southern states, and particularly his constituents in Virginia, that the federal government would not undermine their security against slave insurrection by disarming the militia.

Legal historian Paul Finkelman argues that this scenario is implausible. Most Southern white men between the ages of 18 and 45 were required to serve on " slave patrols " which were organized groups of white men who enforced discipline upon enslaved blacks. Finkelman recognises that James Madison "drafted an amendment to protect the right of the states to maintain their militias," but insists that "The amendment had nothing to do with state police powers, which were the basis of slave patrols. According to Pennsylvania attorney Anthony Picadio, the Southern slave states would never have ratified the Second Amendment if it had been understood as creating an individual right to own firearms because of their fear of arming free blacks, hence the emphasis on the phrase "well regulated Militia", introducing the Second Amendment.

Firstly, slave owners feared that enslaved blacks might be emancipated through military service. A few years earlier, there had been a precedent when Lord Dunmore offered freedom to slaves who escaped and joined his forces with "Liberty to Slaves" stitched onto their jacket pocket flaps. Freed slaves also served in General Washington 's army. Secondly, they also greatly feared "a ruinous slave rebellion in which their families would be slaughtered and their property destroyed. The right to bear arms was therefore deliberately tied to membership in a militia by the slaveholder and chief drafter of the Amendment, James Madison , because only whites could join militias in the South. In , Thomas Jefferson had submitted a draft constitution for Virginia that said "no freeman shall ever be debarred the use of arms within his own lands or tenements".

According to Picadio, this version was rejected because "it would have given to free blacks the constitutional right to have firearms". James Madison 's initial proposal for a bill of rights was brought to the floor of the House of Representatives on June 8, , during the first session of Congress. The initial proposed passage relating to arms was:. The right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed; a well armed and well regulated militia being the best security of a free country: but no person religiously scrupulous of bearing arms shall be compelled to render military service in person.

On July 21, Madison again raised the issue of his bill and proposed that a select committee be created to report on it. The House voted in favor of Madison's motion, [] and the Bill of Rights entered committee for review. The committee returned to the House a reworded version of the Second Amendment on July A well regulated militia, composed of the body of the people, being the best security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed; but no person religiously scrupulous shall be compelled to bear arms. In late August , the House debated and modified the Second Amendment. These debates revolved primarily around the risk of "mal-administration of the government" using the "religiously scrupulous" clause to destroy the militia as British forces had attempted to destroy the Patriot militia at the commencement of the American Revolution.

These concerns were addressed by modifying the final clause, and on August 24, the House sent the following version to the Senate:. A well regulated militia, composed of the body of the people, being the best security of a free state, the right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed; but no one religiously scrupulous of bearing arms shall be compelled to render military service in person. The next day, August 25, the Senate received the amendment from the House and entered it into the Senate Journal. However, the Senate scribe added a comma before "shall not be infringed" and changed the semicolon separating that phrase from the religious exemption portion to a comma:.

A well regulated militia, composed of the body of the people, being the best security of a free state, the right of the people to keep and bear arms, shall not be infringed, but no one religiously scrupulous of bearing arms shall be compelled to render military service in person. By this time, the proposed right to keep and bear arms was in a separate amendment, instead of being in a single amendment together with other proposed rights such as the due process right.

As a representative explained, this change allowed each amendment to "be passed upon distinctly by the States". A well regulated militia, being the best security of a free state, the right of the people to keep and bear arms, shall not be infringed. The Senate returned to this amendment for a final time on September 9. A proposal to insert the words "for the common defence" next to the words "bear arms" was defeated.

A motion passed to replace the words "the best", and insert in lieu thereof "necessary to the". The final version by the Senate was amended to read as:. A well regulated militia being necessary to the security of a free state, the right of the people to keep and bear arms, shall not be infringed. The enrolled original Joint Resolution passed by Congress on September 25, , on permanent display in the Rotunda, reads as:. A well regulated militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the People to keep and bear arms, shall not be infringed.

On December 15, , the Bill of Rights the first ten amendments to the Constitution was adopted, having been ratified by three-fourths of the states, having been ratified as a group by all the fourteen states then in existence except Connecticut, Massachusetts, and Georgia — which added ratifications in During the first two decades following the ratification of the Second Amendment, public opposition to standing armies, among Anti-Federalists and Federalists alike, persisted and manifested itself locally as a general reluctance to create a professional armed police force, instead relying on county sheriffs, constables and night watchmen to enforce local ordinances.

In these early decades, law enforcement officers were rarely armed with firearms, using billy clubs as their sole defensive weapons. On May 8, , Congress passed "[a]n act more effectually to provide for the National Defence, by establishing an Uniform Militia throughout the United States" requiring:. The act also gave specific instructions to domestic weapon manufacturers "that from and after five years from the passing of this act, muskets for arming the militia as herein required, shall be of bores sufficient for balls of the eighteenth part of a pound.

In addition to the exemptions granted by the law for custom-house officers and their clerks, post-officers and stage drivers employed in the care and conveyance of U. Though a number of able-bodied white men remained available for service, many simply did not show up for militia duty. Penalties for failure to appear were enforced sporadically and selectively. The first test of the militia system occurred in July , when a group of disaffected Pennsylvania farmers rebelled against federal tax collectors whom they viewed as illegitimate tools of tyrannical power.

When officials resorted to drafting men, they faced bitter resistance. Forthcoming soldiers consisted primarily of draftees or paid substitutes as well as poor enlistees lured by enlistment bonuses. The officers, however, were of a higher quality, responding out of a sense of civic duty and patriotism, and generally critical of the rank and file. The episode provoked criticism of the citizen militia and inspired calls for a universal militia. Secretary of War Henry Knox and Vice President John Adams had lobbied Congress to establish federal armories to stock imported weapons and encourage domestic production. In the 20th century, Congress passed the Militia Act of The act defined the militia as every able-bodied male aged 18 to 44 who was a citizen or intended to become one.

Federal law continues to define the militia as all able-bodied males aged 17 to 44, who are citizens or intend to become one, and female citizens who are members of the National Guard. The militia is divided into the organized militia, which consists of the National Guard and Naval Militia , and the unorganized militia. A militia, when properly formed, are in fact the people themselves, and render regular troops in a great measure unnecessary.

I ask who are the militia? But I cannot say who will be the militia of the future day. If that paper on the table gets no alteration, the militia of the future day may not consist of all classes, high and low, and rich and poor; but may be confined to the lower and middle classes of the people, granting exclusion to the higher classes of the people. If we should ever see that day, the most ignominious punishments and heavy fines may be expected. Under the present government all ranks of people are subject to militia duty. In , Tench Coxe made the following point in a commentary on the Second Amendment: [].

As civil rulers, not having their duty to the people duly before them, may attempt to tyrannize, and as the military forces which must be occasionally raised to defend our country, might pervert their power to the injury of their fellow citizens, the people are confirmed by the next article in their right to keep and bear their private arms. The earliest published commentary on the Second Amendment by a major constitutional theorist was by St.

George Tucker. He annotated a five-volume edition of Sir William Blackstone 's Commentaries on the Laws of England , a critical legal reference for early American attorneys published in A well regulated militia being necessary to the security of a free state, the right of the people to keep, and bear arms, shall not be infringed. Amendments to C. This may be considered as the true palladium of liberty The right of self defence is the first law of nature: In most governments it has been the study of rulers to confine this right within the narrowest limits possible.

Wherever standing armies are kept up, and the right of the people to keep and bear arms is, under any colour or pretext whatsoever, prohibited, liberty, if not already annihilated, is on the brink of destruction. In England, the people have been disarmed, generally, under the specious pretext of preserving the game : a never failing lure to bring over the landed aristocracy to support any measure, under that mask, though calculated for very different purposes. True it is, their bill of rights seems at first view to counteract this policy: but the right of bearing arms is confined to protestants, and the words suitable to their condition and degree, have been interpreted to authorise the prohibition of keeping a gun or other engine for the destruction of game, to any farmer, or inferior tradesman, or other person not qualified to kill game.

So that not one man in five hundred can keep a gun in his house without being subject to a penalty. In footnotes 40 and 41 of the Commentaries , Tucker stated that the right to bear arms under the Second Amendment was not subject to the restrictions that were part of English law: "The right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed. II, p. Tucker's annotations for that latter section did not mention the Second Amendment but cited the standard works of English jurists such as Hawkins.

Further, Tucker criticized the English Bill of Rights for limiting gun ownership to the very wealthy, leaving the populace effectively disarmed, and expressed the hope that Americans "never cease to regard the right of keeping and bearing arms as the surest pledge of their liberty. Tucker's commentary was soon followed, in , by that of William Rawle in his landmark text A View of the Constitution of the United States of America. Like Tucker, Rawle condemned England's "arbitrary code for the preservation of game", portraying that country as one that "boasts so much of its freedom", yet provides a right to "protestant subjects only" that it "cautiously describ[es] to be that of bearing arms for their defence" and reserves for "[a] very small proportion of the people[.

Speaking of the Second Amendment generally, Rawle said:. The prohibition is general. No clause in the Constitution could by any rule of construction be conceived to give to congress a power to disarm the people. Such a flagitious attempt could only be made under some general pretence by a state legislature. But if in any blind pursuit of inordinate power, either should attempt it, this amendment may be appealed to as a restraint on both.

Rawle, long before the concept of incorporation was formally recognized by the courts, or Congress drafted the Fourteenth Amendment , contended that citizens could appeal to the Second Amendment should either the state or federal government attempt to disarm them. He did warn, however, that "this right [to bear arms] ought not Joseph Story articulated in his influential Commentaries on the Constitution [] the orthodox view of the Second Amendment, which he viewed as the amendment's clear meaning:.

The right of the citizens to keep and bear arms has justly been considered, as the palladium of the liberties of a republic; since it offers a strong moral check against the usurpations and arbitrary power of rulers; and it will generally, even if these are successful in the first instance, enable the people to resist and triumph over them. And yet, though this truth would seem so clear, and the importance of a well-regulated militia would seem so undeniable, it cannot be disguised, that among the American people there is a growing indifference to any system of militia discipline, and a strong disposition, from a sense of its burdens, to be rid of all regulations.

How it is practicable to keep the people duly armed without some organization, it is difficult to see. There is certainly no small danger, that indifference may lead to disgust, and disgust to contempt; and thus gradually undermine all the protection intended by this clause of our National Bill of Rights. Story describes a militia as the "natural defence of a free country", both against foreign foes, domestic revolts and usurpation by rulers. The book regards the militia as a "moral check" against both usurpation and the arbitrary use of power, while expressing distress at the growing indifference of the American people to maintaining such an organized militia, which could lead to the undermining of the protection of the Second Amendment.

Abolitionist Lysander Spooner , commenting on bills of rights, stated that the object of all bills of rights is to assert the rights of individuals against the government and that the Second Amendment right to keep and bear arms was in support of the right to resist government oppression, as the only security against the tyranny of government lies in forcible resistance to injustice, for injustice will certainly be executed, unless forcibly resisted. The congressional debate on the proposed Fourteenth Amendment concentrated on what the Southern States were doing to harm the newly freed slaves, including disarming the former slaves. In , Judge Timothy Farrar published his Manual of the Constitution of the United States of America , which was written when the Fourteenth Amendment was "in the process of adoption by the State legislatures": [] [k].

The States are recognized as governments, and, when their own constitutions permit, may do as they please; provided they do not interfere with the Constitution and laws of the United States, or with the civil or natural rights of the people recognized thereby, and held in conformity to them. The right of every person to "life, liberty, and property", to "keep and bear arms", to the "writ of habeas corpus" to "trial by jury", and divers others, are recognized by, and held under, the Constitution of the United States, and cannot be infringed by individuals or even by the government itself. Judge Thomas M. Cooley , perhaps the most widely read constitutional scholar of the nineteenth century, wrote extensively about this amendment, [] [] and he explained in how the Second Amendment protected the "right of the people":.

It might be supposed from the phraseology of this provision that the right to keep and bear arms was only guaranteed to the militia; but this would be an interpretation not warranted by the intent. The militia, as has been elsewhere explained, consists of those persons who, under the law, are liable to the performance of military duty, and are officered and enrolled for service when called upon. But the law may make provision for the enrolment of all who are fit to perform military duty, or of a small number only, or it may wholly omit to make any provision at all; and if the right were limited to those enrolled, the purpose of this guaranty might be defeated altogether by the action or neglect to act of the government it was meant to hold in check. The meaning of the provision undoubtedly is, that the people, from whom the militia must be taken, shall have the right to keep and bear arms; and they need no permission or regulation of law for the purpose.

But this enables the government to have a well-regulated militia; for to bear arms implies something more than the mere keeping; it implies the learning to handle and use them in a way that makes those who keep them ready for their efficient use; in other words, it implies the right to meet for voluntary discipline in arms, observing in doing so the laws of public order.

Until the late 20th century, there was little scholarly commentary of the Second Amendment. Scholars advanced three competing theoretical models for how the prefatory clause should be interpreted. The first, known as the " states' rights " or "collective right" model, held that the Second Amendment does not apply to individuals; rather, it recognizes the right of each state to arm its militia. Under this approach, citizens "have no right to keep or bear arms, but the states have a collective right to have the National Guard".

Emerson in , some circuit courts recognized that the Second Amendment protects an individual right to bear arms. The second, known as the "sophisticated collective right model", held that the Second Amendment recognizes some limited individual right. However, this individual right could be exercised only by actively participating members of a functioning, organized state militia. The third, known as the "standard model", held that the Second Amendment recognized the personal right of individuals to keep and bear arms. Under both of the collective right models, the opening phrase was considered essential as a pre-condition for the main clause. The opening phrase was meant as a non-exclusive example — one of many reasons for the amendment. The question of a collective right versus an individual right was progressively resolved in favor of the individual rights model, beginning with the Fifth Circuit ruling in United States v.

Emerson , along with the Supreme Court's rulings in District of Columbia v. Heller , and McDonald v. Chicago In Heller , the Supreme Court resolved any remaining circuit splits by ruling that the Second Amendment protects an individual right. Warren E. Burger , a conservative Republican appointed chief justice of the United States by President Richard Nixon, wrote in following his retirement:. The Constitution of the United States, in its Second Amendment, guarantees a "right of the people to keep and bear arms". However, the meaning of this clause cannot be understood except by looking to the purpose, the setting and the objectives of the draftsmen People of that day were apprehensive about the new "monster" national government presented to them, and this helps explain the language and purpose of the Second Amendment We see that the need for a state militia was the predicate of the "right" guaranteed; in short, it was declared "necessary" in order to have a state military force to protect the security of the state.

This has been the subject of one of the greatest pieces of fraud — I repeat the word 'fraud' — on the American public by special interest groups that I have ever seen in my lifetime. For more than years, the federal courts have unanimously determined that the Second Amendment concerns only the arming of the people in service to an organized state militia; it does not guarantee immediate access to guns for private purposes. The nation can no longer afford to let the gun lobby's distortion of the Constitution cripple every reasonable attempt to implement an effective national policy toward guns and crime.

Research by Robert Spitzer found that every law journal article discussing the Second Amendment through "reflected the Second Amendment affects citizens only in connection with citizen service in a government organized and regulated militia. An early use of the phrase "well-regulated militia" may be found in Andrew Fletcher 's A Discourse of Government with Relation to Militias , as well as the phrase "ordinary and ill-regulated militia". Jefferson thought well of Fletcher, commenting that "the political principles of that patriot were worthy the purest periods of the British constitution.

They are those which were in vigour. The term "regulated" means "disciplined" or "trained". Supreme Court stated that "[t]he adjective 'well-regulated' implies nothing more than the imposition of proper discipline and training. In the year prior to the drafting of the Second Amendment, in Federalist No. If a well regulated militia be the most natural defence of a free country, it ought certainly to be under the regulation and at the disposal of that body which is constituted the guardian of the national security A tolerable expertness in military movements is a business that requires time and practice.

It is not a day, or even a week, that will suffice for the attainment of it. To oblige the great body of the yeomanry , and of the other classes of the citizens, to be under arms for the purpose of going through military exercises and evolutions, as often as might be necessary to acquire the degree of perfection which would entitle them to the character of a well-regulated militia, would be a real grievance to the people, and a serious public inconvenience and loss Little more can reasonably be aimed at, with respect to the People at large, than to have them properly armed and equipped; and in order to see that this be not neglected, it will be necessary to assemble them once or twice in the course of a year.

State , 1 Ga. Its opinion perfectly captured the way in which the operative clause of the Second Amendment furthers the purpose announced in the prefatory clause, in continuity with the English right":. Nor is the right involved in this discussion less comprehensive or valuable: "The right of the people to bear arms shall not be infringed. Our opinion is, that any law, State or Federal, is repugnant to the Constitution, and void, which contravenes this right, originally belonging to our forefathers, trampled under foot by Charles I.

And the acquisition of Texas may be considered the full fruits of this great constitutional right. When each word in the text is given full effect, the Amendment is most naturally read to secure to the people a right to use and possess arms in conjunction with service in a well-regulated militia. So far as appears, no more than that was contemplated by its drafters or is encompassed within its terms.

Even if the meaning of the text were genuinely susceptible to more than one interpretation, the burden would remain on those advocating a departure from the purpose identified in the preamble and from settled law to come forward with persuasive new arguments or evidence. The textual analysis offered by respondent and embraced by the Court falls far short of sustaining that heavy burden. And the Court's emphatic reliance on the claim "that the Second Amendment Justice Antonin Scalia , writing for the majority in Heller , stated:. Nowhere else in the Constitution does a "right" attributed to "the people" refer to anything other than an individual right. What is more, in all six other provisions of the Constitution that mention "the people", the term unambiguously refers to all members of the political community, not an unspecified subset.

This contrasts markedly with the phrase "the militia" in the prefatory clause. As we will describe below, the "militia" in colonial America consisted of a subset of "the people" — those who were male, able bodied, and within a certain age range. Reading the Second Amendment as protecting only the right to "keep and bear Arms" in an organized militia therefore fits poorly with the operative clause's description of the holder of that right as "the people". An earlier case, United States v. Verdugo-Urquidez , dealt with nonresident aliens and the Fourth Amendment, but led to a discussion of who are "the People" when referred to elsewhere in the Constitution: [].

The Second Amendment protects "the right of the people to keep and bear Arms", and the Ninth and Tenth Amendments provide that certain rights and powers are retained by and reserved to "the people" While this textual exegesis is by no means conclusive, it suggests that "the people" protected by the Fourth Amendment, and by the First and Second Amendments, and to whom rights and powers are reserved in the Ninth and Tenth Amendments, refers to a class of persons who are part of a national community or who have otherwise developed sufficient connection with this country to be considered part of that community. According to the majority in Heller , there were several different reasons for this amendment, and protecting militias was only one of them; if protecting militias had been the only reason then the amendment could have instead referred to "the right of the militia to keep and bear arms" instead of "the right of the people to keep and bear arms".

In Heller the majority rejected the view that the term "to bear arms" implies only the military use of arms:. Before addressing the verbs "keep" and "bear", we interpret their object: "Arms". The term was applied, then as now, to weapons that were not specifically designed for military use and were not employed in a military capacity. Thus, the most natural reading of "keep Arms" in the Second Amendment is to "have weapons". At the time of the founding, as now, to "bear" meant to "carry". In numerous instances, "bear arms" was unambiguously used to refer to the carrying of weapons outside of an organized militia.

Nine state constitutional provisions written in the 18th century or the first two decades of the 19th, which enshrined a right of citizens "bear arms in defense of themselves and the state" again, in the most analogous linguistic context — that "bear arms" was not limited to the carrying of arms in a militia. The phrase "bear Arms" also had at the time of the founding an idiomatic meaning that was significantly different from its natural meaning: "to serve as a soldier, do military service, fight" or "to wage war". But it unequivocally bore that idiomatic meaning only when followed by the preposition "against". Every example given by petitioners' amici for the idiomatic meaning of "bear arms" from the founding period either includes the preposition "against" or is not clearly idiomatic.

In any event, the meaning of "bear arms" that petitioners and Justice Stevens propose is not even the sometimes idiomatic meaning. Rather, they manufacture a hybrid definition, whereby "bear arms" connotes the actual carrying of arms and therefore is not really an idiom but only in the service of an organized militia. No dictionary has ever adopted that definition, and we have been apprised of no source that indicates that it carried that meaning at the time of the founding.

Worse still, the phrase "keep and bear Arms" would be incoherent. The word "Arms" would have two different meanings at once: "weapons" as the object of "keep" and as the object of "bear" one-half of an idiom. It would be rather like saying "He filled and kicked the bucket" to mean "He filled the bucket and died. The Amendment's text does justify a different limitation: the "right to keep and bear arms" protects only a right to possess and use firearms in connection with service in a state-organized militia. Had the Framers wished to expand the meaning of the phrase "bear arms" to encompass civilian possession and use, they could have done so by the addition of phrases such as "for the defense of themselves".

A May analysis by Dennis Baron contradicted the majority opinion:. A search of Brigham Young University's new online Corpus of Founding Era American English, with more than 95, texts and million words, yields instances of the phrase "bear arms". These databases confirm that the natural meaning of "bear arms" in the framers' day was military. However, a paper from found that before , the use of the phrase "bear arms" was commonly used in a civilian context, such as hunting and personal self-defense, in both American and British law. In the century following the ratification of the Bill of Rights , the intended meaning and application of the Second Amendment drew less interest than it does in modern times. A notable exception to this general rule was Houston v.

Moore , 18 U. Supreme Court mentioned the Second Amendment in an aside. State and federal courts historically have used two models to interpret the Second Amendment: the "individual rights" model, which holds that individuals hold the right to bear arms, and the "collective rights" model, which holds that the right is dependent on militia membership. The "collective rights" model has been rejected by the Supreme Court, in favor of the individual rights model, beginning with its District of Columbia v.

Heller decision. Miller , ; District of Columbia v. Heller ; and McDonald v. Heller and McDonald supported the individual rights model, under which the Second Amendment protects the right to keep and bear arms much as the First Amendment protects the right to free speech. Under this model, the militia is composed of members who supply their own arms and ammunition. This is generally recognized as the method by which militias have historically been armed, as the Supreme Court in Miller said:. The signification attributed to the term Militia appears from the debates in the Convention, the history and legislation of Colonies and States, and the writings of approved commentators.

These show plainly enough that the Militia comprised all males physically capable of acting in concert for the common defense. Of the collective rights model that holds that the right to arms is based on militia membership, the Supreme Court in Heller said:. A purposive qualifying phrase that contradicts the word or phrase it modifies is unknown this side of the looking glass except, apparently, in some courses on Linguistics. If "bear arms" means, as we think, simply the carrying of arms, a modifier can limit the purpose of the carriage "for the purpose of self-defense" or "to make war against the King".

But if "bear arms" means, as the petitioners and the dissent think, the carrying of arms only for military purposes, one simply cannot add "for the purpose of killing game". The right "to carry arms in the militia for the purpose of killing game" is worthy of the mad hatter. In the Reconstruction Era case of United States v. Cruikshank , 92 U. The Court dismissed the charges, holding that the Bill of Rights restricted Congress but not private individuals.

The Court concluded, "[f]or their protection in its enjoyment, the people must look to the States. The Court stated that "[t]he Second Amendment The fourteenth amendment prohibits a State from depriving any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; but this adds nothing to the rights of one citizen as against another. Thus, the Court held a federal anti-Ku-Klux-Klan statute to be unconstitutional as applied in that case. In Presser v. Illinois , U. The Supreme Court reaffirmed Cruikshank , and also held that the Second Amendment prevented neither the States nor Congress from barring private militias that parade with arms; such a right "cannot be claimed as a right independent of law".

This decision upheld the States' authority to regulate the militia and that citizens had no right to create their own militias or to own weapons for semi-military purposes. In Miller v. Texas , U. Miller sought to have his conviction overturned, claiming his Second Amendment rights were violated and that the Bill of Rights should be applied to state law. The Supreme Court ruled that the Second Amendment did not apply to state laws such as the Texas law: [67] "As the proceedings were conducted under the ordinary forms of criminal prosecutions there certainly was no denial of due process of law.

In Robertson v. Baldwin , U. II is not infringed by laws prohibiting the carrying of concealed weapons. United States v. Miller , U. The Supreme Court described that the duty of citizens by force of arms to defend the government against all enemies whenever necessity arises as a fundamental principle of the United States Constitution. Jack Miller and Frank Layton "did unlawfully Oklahoma to Siloam Springs Arkansas a certain firearm In a unanimous opinion authored by Justice McReynolds , the Supreme Court stated "the objection that the Act usurps police power reserved to the States is plainly untenable.

In the absence of any evidence tending to show that possession or use of a 'shotgun having a barrel of less than eighteen inches in length' at this time has some reasonable relationship to any preservation or efficiency of a well regulated militia, we cannot say that the Second Amendment guarantees the right to keep and bear such an instrument. Certainly it is not within judicial notice that this weapon is any part of the ordinary military equipment or that its use could contribute to the common defense. Gun rights advocates claim that the Court in Miller ruled that the Second Amendment protected the right to keep arms that are part of "ordinary military equipment". Most modern scholars recognize this fact.

According to the syllabus prepared by the U. Heller , U. The Heller court also stated Heller , U. Heller to include "any thing that a man wears for his defence, or takes into his hands, or useth in wrath to cast at or strike another". Yanna to state certain limitations on the right to keep and bear arms:. In some respects, these limitations are consistent with each other. However, they are not identical, and the United States Supreme Court neither fully harmonized them nor elevated one over another.

First, the Court stated that "the Second Amendment does not protect those weapons not typically possessed by law-abiding citizens for lawful purposes. As noted, however, this included weapons that did not exist when the Second Amendment was enacted. There are similar legal summaries of the Supreme Court's findings in Heller as the one quoted above. Aguilar , summed up Heller ' s findings and reasoning:.

In District of Columbia v. After a lengthy historical discussion, the Court ultimately concluded that the second amendment "guarantee[s] the individual right to possess and carry weapons in case of confrontation" id. Based on this understanding, the Court held that a District of Columbia law banning handgun possession in the home violated the second amendment. Heller has been widely described as a landmark decision because it was the first time the Court affirmed an individual's right to own a gun. Like most rights, the right secured by the Second Amendment is not unlimited Although we do not undertake an exhaustive historical analysis today of the full scope of the Second Amendment, nothing in our opinion should be taken to cast doubt on longstanding prohibitions on the possession of firearms by felons and the mentally ill, or laws forbidding the carrying of firearms in sensitive places such as schools and government buildings, or laws imposing conditions and qualifications on the commercial sale of arms.

The Court's statement that the right secured by the Second Amendment is limited has been widely discussed by lower courts and the media. Justice Stevens ' dissenting opinion, which was joined by the three other dissenters, said:. The question presented by this case is not whether the Second Amendment protects a "collective right" or an "individual right". Surely it protects a right that can be enforced by individuals.

But a conclusion that the Second Amendment protects an individual right does not tell us anything about the scope of that right. The Second Amendment was adopted to protect the right of the people of each of the several States to maintain a well-regulated militia. It was a response to concerns raised during the ratification of the Constitution that the power of Congress to disarm the state militias and create a national standing army posed an intolerable threat to the sovereignty of the several States.

Neither the text of the Amendment nor the arguments advanced by its proponents evidenced the slightest interest in limiting any legislature's authority to regulate private civilian uses of firearms. Specifically, there is no indication that the Framers of the Amendment intended to enshrine the common-law right of self-defense in the Constitution. This dissent called the majority opinion "strained and unpersuasive" and said that the right to possess a firearm exists only in relation to the militia and that the D. In the majority opinion, Justice Stevens' interpretation of the phrase "to keep and bear arms" was referred to as a "hybrid" definition that Stevens purportedly chose in order to avoid an "incoherent" and "[g]rotesque" idiomatic meeting.

Justice Breyer , in his own dissent joined by Stevens, Souter, and Ginsburg, stated that the entire Court subscribes to the proposition that "the amendment protects an 'individual' right — i. Regarding the term "well regulated", the majority opinion said, "The adjective 'well-regulated' implies nothing more than the imposition of proper discipline and training. The dissenting justices were not persuaded by this argument. Reaction to Heller has varied, with many sources giving focus to the ruling referring to itself as being the first in Supreme Court history to read the Second Amendment as protecting an individual right. The majority opinion, authored by Justice Scalia, gives explanation of the majority legal reasoning behind this decision.

Cruikshank , Presser v. Illinois , and United States v. Miller though these earlier rulings did not limit the right to keep and bear arms solely to militia purposes, but rather limits the type of weapon to which the right applies to those used by the militia i. Heller pertained to three District of Columbia ordinances involving restrictions on firearms amounting to a total ban. These three ordinances were a ban on handgun registration, a requirement that all firearms in a home be either disassembled or have a trigger lock, and licensing requirement that prohibits carrying an unlicensed firearm in the home, such as from one room to another.

Under any of the standards of scrutiny the Court has applied to enumerated constitutional rights, this prohibition — in the place where the importance of the lawful defense of self, family, and property is most acute — would fail constitutional muster. Because Heller conceded at oral argument that the District's licensing law is permissible if it is not enforced arbitrarily and capriciously, the Court assumed that a license will satisfy his prayer for relief and did not address the licensing requirement. Assuming he is not disqualified from exercising Second Amendment rights, the District must permit Heller to register his handgun and must issue him a license to carry it in the home. Justice Ginsburg was a vocal critic of Heller. When we no longer need people to keep muskets in their home, then the Second Amendment has no function If the Court had properly interpreted the Second Amendment, the Court would have said that amendment was very important when the nation was new; it gave a qualified right to keep and bear arms, but it was for one purpose only — and that was the purpose of having militiamen who were able to fight to preserve the nation.

According to adjunct Professor of Law at Duquesne University School of Law Anthony Picadio, who said he's not anti-gun but rather "anti-bad-judging", Justice Scalia's reasoning in Heller is the product of an erroneous reading of colonial history and the drafting history of the Second Amendment. Instead, he argues, there would be more respect for the Heller decision, if the right acknowledged in Heller would have been forthrightly classified as an unenumerated right and if the issue in Heller would have been analysed under the Ninth Amendment to the United States Constitution. As recognized by Justice Alito in the McDonald case , it protects only "the right to possess a handgun in the house for the purposes of self-defense.

On June 28, , the Court in McDonald v. City of Chicago , U. Four of the five justices in the majority voted to do so by way of the Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment , while the fifth justice, Clarence Thomas , voted to do so through the amendment's Privileges or Immunities Clause. Justice Thomas, in his concurring opinion , noted that the Privileges or Immunities Clause refers to "citizens" whereas the Due Process Clause refers more broadly to any "person", and therefore Thomas reserved the issue of non-citizens for later decision.

In People v. Two years later, in McDonald v. In so holding, the Court reiterated that "the Second Amendment protects the right to keep and bear arms for the purpose of self-defense" id. On March 21, , in a per curiam decision the Court vacated a Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court decision upholding the conviction of a woman who carried a stun gun for self-defense. City of New York, New York on December 2, , to decide whether a New York City ordinance that prevents the transport of guns, even if properly unloaded and locked in containers, from within city limits to outside of the city limits is unconstitutional. New York law prohibits the concealed carry of firearms without a permit.

The issuance of such permits is at the discretion of state authorities, and a permit will not issue absent 'proper cause'. Until District of Columbia v. Heller , United States v. Miller had been the only Supreme Court decision that "tested a congressional enactment against [the Second Amendment]". Emerson , federal courts recognized only the collective right, [] with "courts increasingly referring to one another's holdings Emerson changed this by addressing the question in depth, with the Fifth Circuit determining that the Second Amendment protects an individual right.

Lockyer , and the D. Circuit supported Emerson in Parker v. District of Columbia. Heller , in which the U. Supreme Court determined that the Second Amendment protects an individual right. Since Heller , the United States courts of appeals have ruled on many Second Amendment challenges to convictions and gun control laws. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Second Amendment disambiguation. Voting Rights. Drafting and ratification timeline Convention Signing Federalism Republicanism. Further information: Constitutional Convention. Patrick Henry left believed that a citizenry trained in arms was the only sure guarantor of liberty [] while Alexander Hamilton right wrote in Federalist No.

William Rawle of Pennsylvania left was a lawyer and district attorney; Thomas M. Cooley of Michigan right was an educator and judge. Joseph Story of Massachusetts left became a U. Supreme Court justice; Tench Coxe of Pennsylvania right was a political economist and delegate to the Continental Congress. See also: List of firearm court cases in the United States. Main article: United States v. Main article: Presser v. Main article: District of Columbia v. Main article: McDonald v. City of Chicago. Main article: Caetano v. City of New York. Malcolm, "The Role of the Militia", pp.

We look to this because it has always been widely understood that the Second Amendment, like the First and Fourth Amendments, codified a pre-existing right. The very text of the Second Amendment implicitly recognizes the pre-existence of the right and declares only that it 'shall not be infringed'. Neither is it in any manner dependent upon that instrument for its existence. The Second amendment declares that it shall not be infringed See J. Schwoerer, The Declaration of Rights , , p. Under the auspices of the Game Act, for example, the Catholic James II had ordered general disarmaments of regions home to his Protestant enemies. See Malcolm — These experiences caused Englishmen to be extremely wary of military forces run by the state regulars and to be jealous of their arms.

They accordingly obtained an assurance from William and Mary, in the Declaration of Right which was codified as the English Bill of Rights , that Protestants would never be disarmed: 'That the subjects which are Protestants may have arms for their defense suitable to their conditions and as allowed by law. This right has long been understood to be the predecessor to our Second Amendment. See E.

Archived from the original PDF on March 2, Retrieved February 25, As with the English law "like most rights, the Second Amendment is not unlimited. It is not a right to keep and carry any weapon whatsoever in any manner whatsoever and for whatever purpose. Heller" PDF. The framers' attempt to address all three in a single declarative sentence has contributed mightily to the subsequent confusion over the proper interpretation of the Second Amendment.

The right protected is really the right of a state to maintain an armed militia, or national guard, as we call it now. In the eighteenth century people feared that Congress might, by passing a law, prohibit the states from arming their citizens. Then having all the armed strength at its command, the national government could overwhelm the states. Such a circumstance has never happened, but this amendment would prevent it. The Second Amendment does not give anybody or everybody the right to possess and use firearms. The states may very properly prescribe regulations and permits governing the use of guns within their borders.

ISBN Retrieved July 5, In the second article, it is declared, that a well regulated militia is necessary to the security of a free state; a proposition from which few will dissent. Although in actual war, the services of regular troops are confessedly more valuable; yet, while peace prevails, and in the commencement of a war before a regular force can be raised, the militia form the palladium of the country. They are ready to repel invasion, to suppress insurrection, and preserve the good order and peace of government. That they should be well regulated, is judiciously added. A disorderly militia is disgraceful to itself, and dangerous not to the enemy, but to its own country. The duty of the state government is, to adopt such regulations as will tend to make good soldiers with the least interruptions of the ordinary and useful occupations of civil life.

In this all the Union has a strong and visible interest. The corollary, from the first position, is, that the right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed. The Lawbook Exchange, Ltd. The next amendment is, 'A well-regulated militia being necessary to the security of a free state, the right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed. The friends of a free government cannot be too watchful, to overcome the dangerous tendency of the public mind to sacrifice, for the sake of mere private convenience, this powerful check upon the designs of ambitious men.

The importance of this article will scarcely be doubted by any persons, who have duly reflected upon the subject. The militia is the natural defence of a free country against sudden foreign invasions, domestic insurrections, and domestic usurpations of power by rulers. It is against sound policy for a free people to keep up large military establishments and standing armies in time of peace, both from the enormous expenses, with which they are attended, and the facile means, which they afford to ambitious and unprincipled rulers, to subvert the government, or trample upon the rights of the people.

Manual of the Constitution of the United States of America. Little, Brown. Retrieved July 6, The people of the United States, in making their Constitution, do not create or confer on themselves any new rights, but they expressly reserve all the rights they then held, except what were delegated for their own benefit; and they particularly and expressly recognize and perpetuate many natural and civil common-law rights, which, of course, are placed beyond the reach of any subordinate government, and even of their own. Among these are the following: 1.

The right to be, what they call themselves, 'the people of the United States', citizens, and component members of the body politic — the nation; and to participate in all the privileges, immunities, and benefits the Constitution was designed to obtain or secure for all the American people, especially the right to be protected and governed according to the provisions of the Constitution.

A right to the privileges and immunities of citizens in any of the several States. Among these is the fundamental and elementary right of suffrage. The Representatives to the national and State legislatures must be chosen by the people, the citizens Section 2. Consequently, the citizens must choose them, and have a right to choose them. A right to the common-law writ of habeas corpus, to protect the other common-law right, as well as natural and constitutional right, of personal liberty. A right to trial by jury in any criminal case. A right to keep and bear arms. A right to life, liberty, and property, unless deprived by due process of law. A right to just compensation for private property legally taken for public use. A right to participate in all rights retained by, or reserved to, the people.

Most of these rights, with many others, belong by the Constitution not only to the citizens — the people of the United States, strictly so called, by reason of the franchise of natural birth or otherwise — but also to all persons who may be allowed to be and remain under the jurisdiction and protection of our government. These are a part only of the rights held by every member of the nation, under and by virtue of the Constitution of the United States, independent of any other earthly power, and which, of course, 'cannot be destroyed or abridged by the laws of any particular State'. Who, then, in the United States is destitute of rights?

The right of every person to 'life, liberty, and property', to 'keep and bear arms', to the 'writ of habeas corpus' to 'trial by jury', and divers others, are recognized by, and held under, the Constitution of the United States, and cannot be infringed by individuals or even by the government itself. Several public officials, including James Madison and Supreme Court Justice Joseph Story, retained the confusing practice of referring to each of the ten amendments in the Bill of Rights by the enumeration found in the first draft; the fifth article is the Second Amendment.

Archived from the original on February 10, Retrieved January 30, Santa Clara Law Review. Archived from the original on April 28, The New York Times. Ban On Handgun Ownership". The Washington Post. The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on August 5, June 26, Department of Justice. Retrieved August 18, CQ Press. Retrieved October 31, American Bar Association. Archived from the original on May 23, Retrieved May 23, Archived from the original on July 6, Retrieved August 1, Archived from the original on September 12, Retrieved August 30, Hamilton Ed.

Cruikshank 92 U. Archived from the original on August 28, Retrieved September 5, Miller, U. Cornell University Law School. Archived from the original on September 28, Archived from the original PDF on July 3, Retrieved June 27, CS1 maint: archived copy as title link. Brennan Center. Archived from the original on February 27, Retrieved December 17, Guns in American society: an encyclopedia of history, politics, culture, and the law 2nd ed. Since documents were at that time copied by hand, variations in punctuation and capitalization are common, and the copy retained by the first Congress, the copies transmitted by it to the state legislatures, and the ratifications returned by them show wide variations in such details.

Archived from the original on February 26, Archived from the original on August 20, Retrieved September 23, Writing Instruction for Generation 2. Retrieved July 5, — via Google Books. August 9, Archived from the original on June 9, Constitution For Dummies. Archived from the original on June 19, Business Insider. Retrieved on July 1, December 16, Archived from the original on January 26, Retrieved July 1, Archived from the original on October 23, Retrieved May 28, United States Reports. Retrieved August 7, Separation of Powers in Practice — Thomas Campbell. Separation of Powers in Practice. Stanford University Press. The Bill of Rights, as passed by both houses of Congress, contained twelve articles.

The first two articles failed of ratification, and thus it was article four which ultimately became the Second Amendment. The "official copy of the Joint Resolution of Congress proposing articles to the Legislatures of the States," as exhibited at the National Archives Building contains all three commas. However, to facilitate ratification of the proposed amendments, 13 copies were made by hand for forwarding to the states. At least one of these documents viewed at the National Archives Building omitted the final comma. In conveying notice of ratification, some states e. Delaware merely attached the official state action to the copy received.

Other states e. New York recopied the text of the amendments in its notification. The New York ratification document of March 27, , contains only one comma in the fourth article. Ronhovde, Legislative Attorney for the Library of Congress, c. Congressional Documents and Debates, —". Archived from the original on May 29, Bill of Rights , that Protestants would never be disarmed This right has long been understood to be the predecessor to our Second Amendment It was clearly an individual right, having nothing whatever to do with service in a militia. To be sure, it was an individual right not available to the whole population, given that it was restricted to Protestants, and like all written English rights it was held only against the Crown, not Parliament.

Archived from the original on March 18, Archived from the original on August 24, It contained in it its own words of limitation, namely that the right to have arms for self-defence is limited by the words 'and as allowed by Law'. The law is a changing thing. Parliament by statute can repeal the common law Where the Bill of Rights says that 'the Subjects may have arms for their defence suitable for their condition and as allowed by law', 'and as allowed by law' means 'and as allowed by law for the time being'[. Constitutional History of England. Instead, this is a right that is secured by 'the constitution', and in particular by the Bill of Rights.

The Avalon Project. Yale Law School. Archived from the original on October 22, Retrieved December 26, Archived from the original on June 7, Bogus, Carl T. New Press. George E. Archived from the original PDF on December 17, Retrieved March 21, Winter Davis Law Review. SSRN Archived from the original on February 1, Retrieved February 4, Archived from the original on May 31, Retrieved January 16, Archived from the original on February 24, Gun Violence in America: The struggle for control. Northeastern University Press. Retrieved December 29, April 13, Home of Heroes. Archived from the original on December 25, Commentaries on the Laws of England.

Book 1, Chapter 1. Retrieved July 29,

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