Carl Rogers And Abraham Maslow

Wednesday, March 23, 2022 9:20:02 AM

Carl Rogers And Abraham Maslow



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Abraham Maslow \u0026 Carl Rogers

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Furthermore, the hierarchy of needs has been accused of cultural bias—mainly reflecting Western values and ideologies. Critics argue that this concept is considered relative to each culture and society and cannot be universally applied. Carl Rogers : Carl Rogers was a prominent humanistic psychologist who is known for his theory of personality that emphasizes change, growth, and the potential for human good. Carl Rogers was a prominent psychologist and one of the founding members of the humanist movement. Along with Abraham Maslow, he focused on the growth potential of healthy individuals and greatly contributed to our understanding of the self and personality. They emphasized free will and self-determination, with each individual desiring to become the best person they can become.

Humanistic psychology emphasized the active role of the individual in shaping their internal and external worlds. Rogers advanced the field by stressing that the human person is an active, creative, experiencing being who lives in the present and subjectively responds to current perceptions, relationships, and encounters. Through person-centered counseling and scientific therapy research, Rogers formed his theory of personality development, which highlighted free will and the great reservoir of human potential for goodness.

Rogers based his theories of personality development on humanistic psychology and theories of subjective experience. He believed that everyone exists in a constantly changing world of experiences that they are at the center of. A person reacts to changes in their phenomenal field, which includes external objects and people as well as internal thoughts and emotions. Rogers believed that all behavior is motivated by self-actualizing tendencies, which drive a person to achieve at their highest level. As a result of their interactions with the environment and others, an individual forms a structure of the self or self-concept— an organized, fluid, conceptual pattern of concepts and values related to the self.

If a person has a positive self-concept, they tend to feel good about who they are and often see the world as a safe and positive place. If they have a negative self-concept, they may feel unhappy with who they are. Rogers further divided the self into two categories: the ideal self and the real self. The ideal self is the person that you would like to be; the real self is the person you actually are. Rogers focused on the idea that we need to achieve consistency between these two selves.

We experience congruence when our thoughts about our real self and ideal self are very similar—in other words, when our self-concept is accurate. High congruence leads to a greater sense of self-worth and a healthy, productive life. Conversely, when there is a great discrepancy between our ideal and actual selves, we experience a state Rogers called incongruence , which can lead to maladjustment.

In the development of the self-concept, Rogers elevated the importance of unconditional positive regard, or unconditional love. People raised in an environment of unconditional positive regard, in which no preconceived conditions of worth are present, have the opportunity to fully actualize. When people are raised in an environment of conditional positive regard, in which worth and love are only given under certain conditions, they must match or achieve those conditions in order to receive the love or positive regard they yearn for. Their ideal self is thereby determined by others based on these conditions, and they are forced to develop outside of their own true actualizing tendency; this contributes to incongruence and a greater gap between the real self and the ideal self.

Rogers described life in terms of principles rather than stages of development. These principles exist in fluid processes rather than static states. He found that fully functioning individuals had several traits or tendencies in common:. The holistic approach of humanism allows for a great deal of variation but does not identify enough constant variables to be researched with true accuracy. Privacy Policy. Skip to main content. Search for:. Humanistic Perspectives on Personality. Key Takeaways Key Points As a leader of humanistic psychology, Abraham Maslow approached the study of personality by focusing on subjective experiences, free will, and the innate drive toward self-actualization. A person must acquire and master each level of need before proceeding to the next need.

Maslow believed that they were such exceptional people that he began to analyze and take notes on their behavior. This analysis served as the basis for his theories and research on human potential. During the s, Maslow became one of the founders and driving forces behind the school of thought known as humanistic psychology. His theories—including the hierarchy of needs, self-actualization, and peak experiences —became fundamental subjects in the humanist movement. How did Maslow's ideas compare to other theories that were popular at the time? Some key differences:. The process of self-actualization played a critical role in Maslow's theory.

He defined this tendency as "the full use and exploitation of talents, capacities, potentialities, etc. Self-actualization is not an endpoint or a destination. It is an ongoing process in which people continue to stretch themselves and achieve new heights of well-being, creativity, and fulfillment. Maslow believed that self-actualizing people possess a number of key characteristics. Some of these include self-acceptance, spontaneity, independence, and the ability to have peak experiences.

Click below to listen now. Maslow made a number of important contributions to the field of psychology. Today, he is remembered as one of the most influential psychologists of the 20th century. Maslow died in California on June 8, of a heart attack. Ever wonder what your personality type means? Sign up to find out more in our Healthy Mind newsletter. Haggbloom SJ. Cross, M. Encyclopaedia Britannica. Abraham Maslow. Updated June 4, History of Psychology: Globalization, Ideas, and Applications 2nd ed. Public Broadcasting Station. Abraham Maslow: Table of Contents View All. Table of Contents.

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